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Fa1rf8

ministers, minister, diplomatic, ambassador, prince, audience and powers

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FA1RF.8.] The great Powers at the Congress of Vienna, in 1815, divided diplomatic agents into four classes : I. Ambassadors, 1.n.ae or nuncios. 2. Envoys, ministers, and other agents accredited to sovereigns. 3. Charges d'Affaires, accredited to the de. partment of foreign affairs.

Consuls are not in general reckoned among diplomatic ministers ; in some par ticular cases, however, where they have diplomatic duties to perform, they are ac credited and treated as ministers. [CON SUL.] It was long a disputed question, whe ther the smaller powers should communi cate by means of ministers of the highest order. According to the practice of the present day, it is only in the intercourse between the great powers that ambassadors or ministers are employed. The United States of North America are usually represented at the courts of the great powers of the first class by ministers ple nipotentiary, and at those of inferior rank by charges d'affairs ; and they have never sent a person of the rank of ambas sador in the diplomatic sense. (Note, Kent's Commentaries, p. 40, vol. i.) The courts to which the British government sends an ambassador are those of Paris, Vienna, St. Petersburg and the Porte : to the courts of Prussia, Spain, the Two Sicilies, Holland, Portugal, Sweden, Ha nover, Brazil, and to the United States, we send an ' Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary;' to Eardinia, Denmark, Bavaria, Wiirtemberg, and Frankfort, an Envoy Extraordinary ; to Saxony, Tuscany, the Swiss Cantons, Greece, Mexico, and Buenos Ayres, a Minister Plenipotentiary ; to the states of New Grenada, Venezuela, Peru, Chili, and Texas, a Chargé d'Affaires.' The principal secretary of an ambassador is termed Secretary of Embassy,' and of envoys and ministers, Secretary of Lega tion.' Attached to each embassy there are two paid Attaches,' but in the embassy to the Ottoman Porte, when an envoy and minister' only is employed, there is only one paid attaché. The salary of the am bassador to the court of St. Petersburg is 11,0001. a-year; that of the secretary is 10001. ; and the two attaches receive 4001.

and 3001. a-year respectively. The ex penses of the other embassies are not quite so high. The salaries and pensions for diplomatic services are paid out of the con solidated fund, and are regulated by 2 & 3 Wm. IV. c. 116. When this act was passed, in 1832, the annual sum was fixed at 203,5101. ; and it was provided that until the amount was reduced to 180,0001., his majesty should not grant a larger an nual amount in diplomatic pensions than 20001. ; and that when reduced, the whole annual expense of this branch of the public service should not exceed 180,0001. In 1843 the charge for services and allow ances was 140,0001., and for pensions 39,9821. 12s. 6d. ; making a total of 179,9821. 128. 6d.

The rules relating to the ceremonial due to diplomatic ministers are laid down at great length by writers on the subject. The first thing to be done by a minister is to announce his arrival to the minister for foreign affairs. He is then entitled to an audience of the prince, either public or private. The right of demanding at all times, during his stay, a private audience, is the distinction and important privilege of an ambassador. Should his only chance of carrying a measure depend on his having a private audience of the prince to whom he is sent, it is evident that this might be thwarted by the prince's ministers, who would of right be present at the audience of any minister below the rank of ambassador. A minister plenipo tentiary, as well as an ambassador, can claim a public audience. He there pre sents his credentials to the prince, and hands them over to the minister for foreign affairs. Ministers and envoys also present their credentials to the prince in person. After he has been presented to the prince, a minister visits all the di plomatic body. But a minister of the highest order pays his respects in person only to those of the same rank—with ministers of a lower order he merely leaves his card. When an ambassador arrives at a court, all the diplomatists there, who are not of his own rank, call on him first.

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