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England And
England And Wales.—the Number Of County Constituencies Before The Reform Act Was 52, Returning Collectively 94 Members : Viz. Two For Each County Of England, Except Yorkshire ; Four For The Latter County ; And One For Each County Of Wales. The Several Cities And Boroughs Which Are Counties-corporate Were ...

England And
England And Wales.—until The Re Form Act, The Parliamentary Franchise In Counties Had Remained Without Extension Or Alteration, As Limited Full Three Cen Turies Before By The Statutes Of The 8th & 10th Of Henry Vi., The Former Of Which Confined The Right To Such " As Had Free Hold ...

England And_2
England And Wales.—the Whole Number Of The Cities And Boroughs, Or Dis Tricts Of Boroughs, Previously To The Act, Was 208, Returning Collectively 415 Mem Bers. For Total Extinction As Parliamen Tary Boroughs, Those Were Selected The Population Of Each Of Which, According To The Parliamentary Returns Of 1831, Was ...

Engrossing Forestalling
Forestalling, Engrossing, &c. Engrossing Is The Offence Of Purchasing Large Quantities Of Any Commodity, In Order To Sell It Again At A Higher Price. There Are Numerous Statutes Against This Offence, And It Was Also An Offence At Com Mon Law. The English Were Not Singu Lar In This Absurd ...

Enlistment
Enlistment, An Engagement To Serve As A Private Soldier Either During An Unlimited Period Or For A Certain Num Ber Of Years, On Receipt Of A Sum Of Money. Enlistment Differs From Enrol Ment, Inasmuch As It Is A Voluntary Act, Whereas The Latter Is, Under Some Cir Cumstances, Rendered ...

Ensign
Ensign, A Commissioned Officer, The Lowest In Degree, And Immediately Subor Dinate To The Lieutenants In A Regiment Of Infantry. One Of This Rank Is Appointed To Each Company, And The Junior Ensigns Are Charged With The Duty Of Carrying The Colours Of The Regiment. Ensigns In The Regiments Of ...

Equity
Equity, According To The Definition Given By Aristotle, Is " The Rectification Of The Law, When, By Reason Of Its Univer Sality, It Is Deficient ; For' This Is The Rea Son That All Things Are Not Determined By Law, Because It Is Impossible That A Law Should Be Enacted ...

Escheat
Escheat Is From The Norman French Eschet, Which Is From The Word Eschier Or Eschoir, To Fall ;' For An Escheat Is A Casual Profit, Which Comes To The Lord Of A Fee. An Escheat May Happen In Two Ways, As It Is Stated By The Old Law Writers, Per ...

Esquire
Esquire (from The French Ocuier, Or Shield-bearer) Is The Next Title Or Dig Nity To That Of Knight. The Esquire Was The Second In Rank Of The Aspirants To Chi Valry, Or Knighthood, And Had His Name From Carrying The Shield Of The Knight, Whose Bachelor, Or Apprentice In Arms, ...

Established Church
Established Church. United Church Of England And Ireland. [scot Land, Cannon Or.] The History Of The Protestant Episcopal Church In England, Now Called The United Church Of Eng Land And Ireland, Commences In The Reign Of Henry Viii., When That King Abjured The Ecclesiastical Supremacy Of The Pope And Declared ...

Estate
Estate. An Estate Signifies That Title Or Interest Which A Man Has In Lands, Tenements, Hereditaments, Or Other Pro Perty. It Is Either Real Estate, Which Comprises Lands, Tenements, And Heredita Ments Held Or Enjoyed For An Estate Of Freehold ; Or Personal Estate, Which Com Prises Interests For Terms ...

Evidence
Evidence. Legal Evidence Denotes The Means By Which Facts Are Ascertained For Judicial Purposes. The Practical Im Portance Of The Subject Is Obvious From This Definition ; And It Has Accordingly Not Only Attracted Much Attention From Judicial Writers, But Has Formed A Pro Minent Part Of The Jurisprudence Of ...

Exchequer Court
Exchequer Court Is A Superior Court Of Record Established By William The Conqueror As Part Of The Aula Regis, And Reduced To Its Present Order By Ed Ward I. It Is The Lowest In Rank Of The Four Great Courts Of Law Which Sit At Westminster Hall, Although In Ancient ...

Excise Duties
Excise Duties, The Name Given To Taxes Or Duties Levied Upon Articles Of Consumption Which Are Produced Within The Kingdom. This Description, Which Has Usually Been Given Of Excise Duties, Is More Strictly Applicable Now Than It Was Formerly, When The Commissioners Of Ex Cise Revenue Were Also Charged With ...

Excommunication
Excommunication Is The High Est Ecclesiastical Censure Which Can Be Pronounced By A Spiritual Judge. The Person Against Whom It Is Pronounced Is For The Time Excluded From The Com Munion Of The Church. This Punish Ment, According To Some Opinions, Had Its Origin In The Advice Given By St. ...

Execution
Execution Is The Effect Given To The Judgments And Other Proceedings Analogous To Judgments Of Courts Of Law In Civil Suits. This Term Denotes The Process By Which A Party Is Put Into The Possession Of That To Which The Judgment Of A Competent Court Declares Him To Be Entitled. ...

Exemplification Evi Dence
Exemplification. (evi Dence.] Exeter,or Exon Domesday, The Name Given To A Record Preserved Among The Muniments And Charters Belonging To The Dean And Chapter Of Exeter Cathedral, Which Contains A Description Of The West Ern Parts Of The Kingdom, Comprising The Counties Of Wilts, Dorset, Somerset, De Von, And Cornwall. ...

Fa Rmers Genera L
Fa Rmers-genera L. Fermiers Gineraux Was The Name Given In France Under The Old Monarchy To A Company Which Farmed Certain Branches Of The Public Revenue, That Is To Say, Contracted With The Government To Pay Into The Trea Sury A Fixed Yearly Sum, Taking Upon It Self The Collection ...

Fa1rf8
Fa1rf.8.] The Great Powers At The Congress Of Vienna, In 1815, Divided Diplomatic Agents Into Four Classes : I. Ambassadors, 1.n.ae Or Nuncios. 2. Envoys, Ministers, And Other Agents Accredited To Sovereigns. 3. Charges D'affaires, Accredited To The De. Partment Of Foreign Affairs. Consuls Are Not In General Reckoned Among ...

Factor
Factor Is A Mercantile Agent, Who Buys And Sells The Goods Of Others, And Transacts Their Ordinary Business On Com Mission. He Is Intrusted With The Pos Session, Management, And Disposal Of The Goods, And Buys And Sells In His Own Name, In Which Particulars Consists The Main Difference Between ...

Factory
Factory. The Name Of Factory Was Formerly Given Only To Establishments Of Merchants And Factors Resident In Fbreign Countries, Who Were Governed By Certain Regulations Adopted For Their Mutual Sup Port And Assistance Against The Undue Encroachments Or Interference Of The Go Vernments Of The Countries In Which They Resided. ...

Factory
Factory. The Word Factory,' According To The Factory Act (7 Viet. C. 15), Means All Buildings And Premises Wherein Or Within The Close Or Curtilage Of Which Steam, Water, Or Any Other Me Chanical Power Shall Be Used To Move Or Work Any Machinery Employed In Pre Paring, Manufacturing, Or ...

Faculties U
Faculties. [u Si% Ersitv.] Fa I K, A Meeting Of Buyers And Sellers At A Fixed Time And Place ; From The French Foire, Which Is From The Latin Feriae, A Holiday. Fairs In Ancient Times Were Chiefly Held On Holidays. In Former Times Goods And Commodi Ties Of Every ...

Faculty Of Advocates
Advocates, Faculty Of. The Faculty Of Advocates In Edinburgh Con Stitute The Bar Of Scotland. It Consists Of About 400 Members. Only A Small Proportion, However, Of These Profess To Be Practising Lawyers, And It Has Become A Habit For Country Gentlemen To Acquire The Title Of Advocate, In Prefer ...

Federation
Federation. This Word Is De Rived From The Roman Term Foederatus, Which Was Applied By The Romans To States Which Were Connected With The Roman State By A Foedus Or Treaty. A Federal Union Of Sovereign States May Be Most Easily Conceived In The Following Manner:— We Will Suppose That ...

Fellowship
Fellowship Is An Establishment In Some Colleges Which Entitles The Holder To A Share In Its Revenues. Fellowships Are Either Original, That Is, Part Of The Foundation Of The Original Founder; Or In. Grafted, That Is, Endowed By Subsequent Benefactors Of A College Already Esta Blished. Where The Number Of ...

Felony
Felony, In The General Acceptation Of The English Law, Comprises Every Species Of Crime Which Occasioned At Com Mon Law The Forfeiture Of Lands Or Goods, Or Both, And To Which A Capital Or Other Punishment Might Be Superadded, Accord Ing To The Degree Of Guilt. Various De Rivations Of ...

Feoffment
Feoffment Is That Mode Of Con Veying The Property In Lands Or Corporeal Hereditaments In Possession Where The Land Passes By Livery In Deed, I. E. Actual Delivery Of A Portion Of The Land, As A Twig Or A Turf ; Or Where, The Parties Being On The Land, The ...

Feoffment_2
[feoffment.] There Was Another Mode Of Alienating Things "mancipi," By The Form Called Is Jure Cessio, Which, According To Ulpian, Was Applicable Also To Things " Nee Man Cipi." The In Jure Cessio Was A Fictitious Action Before A Competent Magistrate At Rome, Or A Praetor, Or Before A Praeses ...

Feudal System
Feudal System. In Treating Of This Subject We Shall Endeavour To Pre Sent A Concise And Clear View Of The Prin Ciples Of What Is Called The Feudal System, To Indicate The Great Stages Of Its History, Especially In Our Own Country, And To State Briefly The Leading Considerations To ...

Field Marshal
Field-marshal,- A Military Dig Nity Conferred On Such Commanders Of Armies As Are Distinguished By Their High Personal Rank Or Superior Talents. It Has Been Supposed That The Term Marshal Is Derived From Martis Senes Challus ; But It Is More Probable That It Came From The Saxon Words Mar, ...

Fire Insurance
Insurance, Fire. Among Those Associations Whose Object It Is To Secure Individuals From The Consequences Of Accidental Loss, Companies For Assuring The Owners Of Property From Loss Arising From Fire Are Among Those Of Most Obvious Utility, And Have Long Been Successfully Established In This Country. It Might Have Been ...

Fisheries
Fisheries Are Localities Frequented At Ccrtain Seasons By Great Numbers Of Fish, Where They Are Taken Upon A Large Scale. The Right Of Frequenting These Fishing-founds Has Frequently Been Mat Ter Of Dispute Between Governments, And Sometimes The Subject Of Treaties, While Exclusion From Them Or Invasion Of Pre Sumed ...

Flag
Flag, The Ensign Or Colours Of A Ship ; From The Anglo-saxon Fleogon, To Fly Or Float In The Wind. Flags Borne On The Masts Of Vessels Designate The Country To Which They Respectively Belong ; And They Are Likewise Made To Denote The Quality Of The Officer By Whom ...

Foreign Attachment
Attachment, Foreign. This Is A Judicial Proceeding, By Means Of Which A Creditor May Obtain The Security Of The Goods Or Other Personal Property Of His Debtor, In The Hands Of A Third Per Son, For The Purpose, In The First Instance, Of Enforcing The Appearance Of The Debtor To ...

Forest Laws
Forest - Laws, And Warren, Free. Game Has Constantly Been A Subject Of Legislation From The Conquest To The Pre Sent Time. The Last General Statute Which Relates To Game (2 Wm. Iv. O. 32) Was Enacted In 1831, And It Repealed Twenty-four Acts, Eight Of Which Had Been Passed ...

Forgery
Forgery, From The French Forger, ' To Heat Metal And Hammer It,' Which Is From The Latin Fingere. From This Sense Of Forger Came The Meaning "to Make" Generally, To Invent. Legal Forgery Is The False Making, Counterfeiting, Altering, Or Uttering Any Instrument Or Writing With A Fraudulent Intent, Whereby ...

Foundling Hospitals
Foundling Hospitals Are Charitable Institutions, Which Exist In Most Large Towns Of Europe, For Taking Care Of Infants Forsaken By Their Parents, Such Being Generally The Offspring Of Illegitimate Connexions. These Institu Tions Date From The Middle Ages, And Were Established For The Purpose Of Pre Venting The Destruction Of ...

Frankalmoigne
Frankalmoigne. This Tenure Is Thus Described By Littleton (§ 133): "tenant In Frankalmoigne Is When An Abbot Or Prior, Or Another Man Of Reli Gion, Or Of Holy Church, Holdeth Of His Lord In Frankalmoigne ; That Is To Say In Latin, In Liberam Eleemosinam, That Is, In Free Almes. ...

Friendly Scieties
Friendly Scieties. These Institutions, Which, If Founded Upon Cor Rect Principles And Prudently Conducted, Are Beneficial Both To Their Members And To The Community At Large, Are Of Very Ancient Origin. Mr. Turner, In His His Tory Of The Anglo-saxons,' Notices Them In These Words :—" The Guilds Or Social ...

Gavelkind
Gavelkind, A Customary Tenure Existing At This Day In The County Of Kent Only. It Seems That This Tenur2 Was The Common Socage Tenure Among The Anglo-saxons (glanvil, 1. 7, C. 3), And The Reason Of Its Continuance In Kent Has Been Ascribed To The Resistance Which The Inhabitants Of ...

General
General.] The Proceedings In The Court Of Chan Cery Are Conducted By Bill And Answer. But Besides The Jurisdiction, Of Which A Sketch Has Been Given Above, A Summary Jurisdiction, Upon Petition Only, Has Been Given To Courts Of Equity In Certain Cases By Acts Of Parliament. The Principal Cases ...

General
General, A Title Conferred On Mili Tary Men Above The Rank Of Field-officers. In All The States Of Europe It Indicates The Commander-in-chief Of The Forces Of The Nation; The Commander Of An Army Or Grand Division, And Also Those Who, Under The Latter, Exercise His Functions, With The Particular ...

General Assembly Of The
General Assembly Of The Church Of Scotland. This Is The Scottish Ecclesiastical Parliament; It Is A Representative, Legislative, And Judi Cial Body, Which Differs Essentially In Its Constitution From The Convocation Of The English Church [convocation], In Being Composed Of Representatives Of The Laity, As Well As Of The Clergy ...

Gentleman
Gentleman, A Corruption Of Gent A Hot/me, Our Saxon Ancestors Having Very Early Substituted " Mon," Or "man," For The Corresponding Term Of The Norman French, From Which They Originally Re Ceived The Term. Some Form Of This Word (a Compound Of Yemilis And Homo) Is Found In All The ...

Germanic Confederation
Germanic Confederation. The, Constitution Of The Old German Empire Is Noticed Under Germanic Em Pire. After The First French Revolution, Most Of The States Of Germany Were Joined In A Confederation Under The Pro Tection Of Napoleon. [confederation Of The Rhine.] The Reverses Of Na Poleon Put An End To ...