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Fellowship

fellows, college, fellowships, felo-de-se, founder and colleges

FELLOWSHIP is an establishment in some colleges which entitles the holder to a share in its revenues. Fellowships are either original, that is, part of the foundation of the original founder; or in. grafted, that is, endowed by subsequent benefactors of a college already esta blished. Where the number of fellows is limited by the original foundation, new fellows cannot be made members of the corporate body without a new incorpora tion. If the number is not limited by the charter, it seems that the corporation may admit new fellows as members, who will be subject to the statutes of the ori ginal foundation in all respects. Gra duates of each several college are in general only eligible to fill a vacant fel lowship in the establishment, and they are elected after having undergone an examination by the master and fellows or by the master and senior fellows. But in some cases special rules which control the election prevail, as where the fellow must be of the blood of the founder, or where he must be a native of a particular county, &c., and in some few cases fellow ships are open to the graduates of several colleges, or even the whole university. In Downing College, Cambridge, gra duates of both universities are eligible. The rules as to the election of fellows are prescribed by the founder, modified in some cases by the by-laws of the several colleges. Some fellowships may be held by laymen, but in general they can be retained only by persons already in holy orders, or who are ordained within a specified time. Fellowships are of un equal value, varying from 301. and less to 250/. a year and upwards, the senior fellowships being in general the most lucrative ; but all confer upon their holders the right to apartments in the college, and certain privileges as to com mons or meals. They are in general tenable for life, unless the holder marries, or inherits estates which afford a larger revenue, or accepts one of the livings be longing to the college which cannot be held with a fellowship. The condition

of celibacy is attached to all fellowships, but it is not peculiar to them ; for in stance, by the statutes of the founder of Harrow school, the head master ought to vacate his mastership upon marriage, jugs as in the case of a fellowship. The col lek,e livings are conferred upon the fel lows, who in general have the option of taking them in order of seniority. FELO-DE-SE (a felon of himself) is a person who, being of sound mind and of the age of discretion, deliberately causes his own death ; and also in some cases, where one maliciously attempts to kill another, and in pursuance of such attempt unwillingly kills himself, he is adjudged a felo-de-se. (1 Hawkins, P. C. c. 27, § 4.) When the deceased is found by the coroner and jury a felo-de-se, all his chattels, real and personal, are forfeited to the crown, though they are, we believe, usually restored upon payment of mode rate fees. It follows from this rule as to forfeiture, that a will made by a felo de-se is void as to his personal estate, though not as to his real estate, nor is his wife barred of her dower. Formerly he was buried in the highway with a stake driven through his body. These laws, so highly repugnant to the feelings of humanity, being a punishment to the sur viving relatives of the deceased, caused juries in general to find that the deceased was not of sound mind ; and by 4 Geo. IV. c. 52. the legislature so far yielded to the popular and herein the better opinion, as to abolish the former ignominious mode of burial, and to provide that a felo-de-se shall be privately interred at night in the burial-ground in which his remains might by law have been interred if the verdict of felo-de-se had not been found against him.