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Germanic Mpire
Germanic Mpire. The Mo Dern History Of Germany Commences In The Ninth Century, When Louis Le De Bonnair, The Grandson Of Charlemagne, Became, By The Treaty Of Verdun, A.d. 843, The First King Of The Germans. After A.d. 918, The Crown Became Elective. The Emperors Of Germany Assumed The Title ...

Glass
Glass. There Are Five Distinct Kinds Of Glass, Which Differ From Each Other In Regard To Some Of The Ingredients Of Which They Are Made, And In The Pro Cesses Of Manufacture. These Kinds Are Flint-glass, Or Crystal ; Crown-glass, Or German Sheet-glass ; Broad-glass, Or Com Mon Window-glass ; ...

Gleaning
Gleaning. The Practice Of Glean Ing In Corn-fields What The Reapers Of The Harvest Leave Behind Is Vulgarly Supposed To Be A Legal Custom Which The " Owner Or Occupier Of The Field Has No Right To Pro Hibit, And That The Poor Who Enter A Field For This Purpose ...

Government
Government Is A Word Used In Common Speech In More Than One Sense. 1, It Denotes The Act Of Governing, As When We Speak Of " The Business Of Government." 2, The Persons Who Govern Are Called " The Government ;" And We Thus Speak Of " The French Government," ...

Guardian
Guardian, One Who Has The Care Of A Person And His Property, Who, By Reason Of His Imbecility Or Want Of Understand Ing, Is In Law Considered Incapable Of Acting For His Own Interest. Guardians In The English Law Are Appointed Only To Infants, Though Under The Roman Law They ...

Habeas Corpus
Habeas Corpus Is A Writ At The Common Law, Used For Various Purposes. It Derives Its Name, Like Other Writs, From The Formal Words Contained In It. When The Writ Of Habeas Corpus Is Spoken Of Without Further Explanation, It Always Means The Important Writ Which Will Pre Sently Be ...

Hardware And Cutlery
Hardware And Cutlery. The Principal Seats Of This Important Branch Of Manufactures Are At Sheffield And Birmingham. In 1841 The Number Of Persons Employed In Making Various Articles Of Cutlery In Sheffield And The Surrounding Villages Was 8564, And 729 Were Employed In Making Hafts And Scales In Connexion With ...

Health Of Towns
Towns, Health Of. On The 14th Of May, 1838, The Poor Law Com Missioners Presented To Lord John Russell, Then Secretary Of State For Home Affairs, A Report By Dr. Arnott And Dr. Kay, And Two Reports By Dr. Southwood Smith, Relative To The Prevalence Of Disease Among The Labouring ...

Herald
Herald, An Officer Whose Duty During The Middle Ages Was To Carry Challenges Or Peaceful Messages From One Prince Or Nobleman To An•ither To Proclaim Peace Or War, To Lay Out The Lists In Jousts Or Tournaments, To Be The Witness Of All Combats, Whether General Or Particular, And To ...

Heraldry
Heraldry, The Art Of Arranging And Explaining In Proper Terms All That Appertains To The Bearing Of Coats Of Arms, Badges, And Other Hereditary Or As Sumed Marks Of Honour ; Also The Art Of Marshalling Processions And Conducting The Ceremonies Of Coronations, Instal Ments, Creations Of Peers, Funerals, Mar ...

Hereditas Jacens Abey Ance
Here'ditas Jacens. [abey Ance. This Word Is The English Form Of The Greek Hadresis (ciptotc). It Signifies Literally' A Choice,' And Hence It Came To Denote An Opinion On Any Subject ; And It Was Used To Express A Sect In Philosophy. The Word Occurs In The New Testament, Sometimes ...

Heriot
Heriot Is A Feudal Service Consisting In A Chattel Which Is Given To The Lord On The Death Of A Tenant, And In Some Places Upon Alienation By A Tenant. It Is Stated To Have Originated In A Voluntary Gift Made By The Dying Tenant To His Lord And Chieftain ...

Holy Alliance
Holy Alliance. The Name Com Monly Given To The Convention Concluded At Paris On The 26th September, 1815, Be Tween Alexander, Emperor Of Russia, Francis, Emperor Of Austria, And Frede Rick William, King Of Prussia. The Draught Of The Convention Was Shown To Lord Castlereagh By The Emperor Of Russia ...

Hospitallers
Hospitallers. Hospitaller, In Its Literal Acceptation, Means One Residing In An Hospital, In Order To Receive The Poor Or Stranger ; From The Latin Hospitalarins, A Word Found Only In The Language Of The Lower Age. The Knights Hospitallers Were An Order Of Religious Formerly Set Tled In England, Who ...

House Of
House Of, And Parliament.] We Are Now Arrived At A Time When The Word Baron Acquired A Sense Still More Restricted Than That Which Has Hitherto Belonged To It. Later Than The Reign Of Edward Ii. We Seldom Find The Word Boron Used In The Chronicles To Designate The Whole ...

House Of Commons
Commons, House Of. The Ob Ject Of This Article Is To Present A Compen Dious View Of The History And Actual State Of The House Of Commons As A Part Of The Imperial Parliament Of Great Britain And Ireland. Long After The First Signing Of The Great Charter, The Levying ...

House Of Lords
Lords, House Of, One Of The Con Stituent Parts Of The Parliament Of The United Kingdom. [parliament.] The Other Is The House Of Commons. The Persons Who Sit In The House Of Lords Are The Lords Spiritual And Lords Temporal. The Lords Spiritual Are The Two Arch Bishops And Twenty-four ...

Housebreaking And Bur Glary
Housebreaking And Bur Glary. The Derivation Of The Word Burglary Is Quite Uncertain. By Some Writers It Is Supposed To Have Been Intro Duced By The Saxons, And To Be Com Pounded Of Burg, A Castle Or House, And Larron Or Latro, A Thief. But Spelman Conceives That The Term ...

Hudsons Bay Company And
Hudson's Bay Company And The Fur Trade. In The Sixth Cen Tury The Skins Of Sables Were Brought For Sale From The Confines Of The Arctic Ocean To Rome, Through The Intervention Of Many Different Hands, So That The Ulti Mate Cost To The Consumer Was Very Great. For Several ...

Hue And Cry
Hue And Cry Was The Old Common Law Process Of Pursuing With Horn And Voice All Felons And Such As Had Danger Ously Wounded Another. Though The Term Has In A Great Mea Sure Fallen Into Disuse, The Process Is Still Recognised By The Law Of England As A Means ...

Imperial Parliament
Parliament, Imperial, The Legislature Of The United Kingdom Of Great Britain And Ireland, Consisting Of The King Or Queen [king], The Lords Spi Ritual And Temporal [loans, Housu Of), And The Knights, Citizens, And Burgesses [comm:vs, Hon's& Of] In Parliament As Sembled. The Word Is Generally Considered To Be Derived ...

Inclosure
Inclosure. The Term Inclosure Is Applied To The Inclosing And Partition Ing Of Lands In England And Wales, Which Are Comprehended Under The Gene Ral Name Of Commons Or Common Lando. A Knowledge Of The Present Condition Of The Lands Comprehended Under This Term Enables Us To Form A Better ...

India Law Commission
India Law Commission. The Act Of The 3 & 4 Wm. Iv. C. 85, By Which The Privileges Of The East India Company Are Regulated, Provides For The Establish Ment Of A Law Commission In India. The 53rd Section Recites That It Is Expe Dient, Subject To Such Special Arrange ...

Indictment
Indictment. In Its Latinized Form This Word Is Indictamentum, Which Is Probably From " Indicare," To Indicate Or Exhibit. An Indictment Is Defined By Blackstone To Be "a Written Accusation Of One Or More Persons, Of A Crime Or A Misdemeanor, Preferred To And Pre Sented Upon Oath By A ...

Indorsement Indorsee
Indorsee, Indorsement, In Dorser. [exchance, Bill Oz.] Induction. [benefice, P. 340.] Infamy (from The Roman Infamia) In English Law Is Not Easily Defined. Certain Offences Were Formerly Con Sidered Such That Conviction And Judg Ment For Such Offences Rendered A Man Infamous'and Incompetent To Be A Witness. But The Endurance ...

Infanticide
Infanticide. The Practice Of Put Ting Infants To Death, Or Exposing Them, Has Existed In Many Countries From The Remotest Periods On Record. Both In The Grecian States And Among The Romans The Exposure Of Infants Was A Common Practice ; And It Does Not Appear That It Was Punished ...

Infantry
Infantry Is A Name Given To The Soldiers Who Serve On Foot. It Is Imme Diately Derived From The Italian Word Fante, Which, Though In Strictness Denoting A Child, Is In General Applied To Any Young Person. From Tue Latter Word Comes Fall Face/no, And This Is The Origin Offantassin, ...

Information
Information, An Accusation Or Complaint Exhibited Before The Court Of King's Bench, Against A Person For Some Misdemeanor. It Differs From An Indict Ment [indictment] Principally In This, That An Indictment Is An Accusation Found By The Oath Of A Grand Jury, Whereas An Information Is Simply The Allegation Of ...

Informer
Informer. An Informer Is A Man Who Lays An Information, Or Prosecutes Any Person In The King's Courts For Some Offence Against The Law Or A Penal Statute. Such A Person Is Generally Called A Com Mon Informer, Because He Makes A Busi Ness Of Laying Informations For The Purpose ...

Injunction
Injunction. An Injunction Is A Writ Issuing By The Order And Under The Seal Of A Court Of Equity, And Is Of Two Kinds, Remedial And Judicial. The Remedial Writ Is Used For The Fol Lowing Purposes Among Many Others : To Restrain Parties From Proceeding In Other Courts, From ...

Inns Of Court And
Inns Of Court And Of Chan Cery. When The Houses Of Law Were First Established Seems Very Doubtful ; But The Fixing Of The Court Of Common Pleas At The Palace At Westminster Appears Greatly To Have Contributed To Their Ori Gin. This Brought Together A Number Of Persons Who ...

Insolvent
Insolvent Is, Literally, A Man Who Cannot Pay His Debts. But A Man Is Not Properly Called Insolvent Till He Has Been Found To Be So By The Process To Which He Is Liable Under The Insolvent Acts, If He Does Not Pay His Creditors. Statutes Have From Time To ...

Institutions And Societies For
Agriculture, Institutions And Societies For The Promotion Of. The Effect Of Legislative Enactments Which Have For Their Object The Advantage Of Agriculture Are Treated Of Under The Heads Agriculture And Bounty. Societies For The " Protection" Of Agriculture Have Nothing To Do With Agriculture As A Science ; But The ...

Interdict
Interdict, In The Law Of Scotland, A Judicial Prohibition Of Injurious Illegal Proceedings. Although Both The Term And The Practice Have Been Derived From The Interdictum Of The Romans, The Process Has Much More Analogy With The " Injunction" Of The English Equity Courts. It Has To Be Kept In ...

Interment
Interment, The Burial Of A Dead Body In The Earth. The Manner Of Dis Posing Of The Bodies Of The Dead Has Varied In Different Nations; But The Most General Modes Have Been Interment In The Earth And Burning On A Funeral Pile. The Practice Of Burying Is Probably The ...

International Law
International Law. This Term Was Originally Applied By Bentham To What Was Previously Called The " Law Of Nations," And It Has Been Generally Received As A More Apt Designation Than That Which It Superseded. When The Term "law Of Nations" Was In Use, That Of "law Of Peace And ...

Iron
Iron. The Iron Trade In Great Britain In All Its Various Branches Is Of Very Great Importance. According To The Census Of 1841 There Were Employed In Great Britain 10,949 Persons In Iron-mines, And 29,497 In The Smelting Of The Ore And The Manufacture Of The Metal. The Quantity Of ...

J Stinia Ns Legislation
J Stinia N's Legislation. Justinian, Soon After Ascending The Throne, Instructed (feb. A.d. 528) A Commission Consisting Of Joannes And Nine Other Per Among Whom Were Tribonian Or Tribunian, And Theophilus, To Make A General Compilation Of The Best And Most Useful Laws, Or " Constitutions," Which Had Been Promulgated ...

Jacobins
Jacobins Is The Name Of A Faction Which Exercised A Great Influence On The Events Of The French Revolution. This Faction Originated In A Political Club Formed At Versailles, About The Time Of The Meeting Of The First National Assembly, And Which Was Composed Chiefly Of Depu Ties From Brittany, ...

Jews
Jews. It Does Not Appear At What Time The Jews Came Into Great Britain, But They Were Settled Here In The Saxon Period, And As Early As A.d. 750. From The Time Of The Conquest The Jews In England Rapidly Increased In Number. Under The First Three Norman Kings They ...

Joint Stock Company
Joint-stock Company. Joint Stock Companies Are Such Companies As Are Unincorporated, And Which Trade Upon A Joint Stock. All Trading Associations, However Numerous, And Although Not Esta Blished By Charter Or Act Of Parliament, Are Legal, Provided Their Purposes Be Legal, And Provided They Do Not Attempt To Exercise The ...

Judicium Judex
Judex, Judicium. It Is Of Some Importance To Form A Correct Notion Of The Terms Jades And Judicium In The Ro Man Writers. The Judicia Private Were Those In Which One Party Claimed Some Thing Of Or Against Another Party, And Must Be Distinguished From The Judicia Publica. The Former ...

Jurisdiction
Jurisdiction. This Term Is The Latin Word Jurisdictio, Which Simply Sig Nifies The " Declaration Of Jus Or Law." He Who Had Jurisdictio Was Said " Jus Di Cere," To "declare The Law." The Whole Office (officium) Of Him Who Declared The Law Was According Expressed By The Word Jurisdictio. ...

Jurisprudence
Jurisprudence. The Latin Word Prudentia (contracted From Providentia) Came, By A Natural Transition, To Mean Know Ledge Or Understanding. " Habebat (says Nepos, Life Of Cimon, C. 2) Magnam Prn Dentiam Turn Juris Civilis Turn Rei Nfilita Ris :" Hence Persons Skilled In The Roman Law Were Called Juris Prudentes, ...

Jury
Jury. A Jury Is An Assembly Of Men Authorised To Inquire Into Or To Determine Facts, And Bound By An Oath To The Faithful Discharge Of Their Duty. The Word Is From The Latin Juro, To Swear, Whence We Find This Institution Called In Law Latin Jurata, And The Persons ...

Jusficiar Of Scotland
Jusficiar Of Scotland. The Earliest Individual In This High Office Which Extant Records Name Seems To Be Geoffrey De Maleville Of Maleville, Temp. K. Male. Iv. The Term " Scotland" Was Then Less Extensive In Its Application Than At Pre Sent : It Designated, Properly Speaking, Not The Whole Territory ...

Justice Clerk Of Scotland
Justice Clerk Of Scotland. This Name Properly Designated The Clerk Of Court, Of The Chief Justice Or Lord Jus Ticiar, Of Scotland ; And Originally There Were As Many Justice Clerks As There Were Justiciars, That Is To Say, One For Gallo Way, One For Lothian, Or The Territory Of ...

Justicia Ayun Amiento
Ayun Amiento, Justicia, Concejo, Cabildo, Regimi Ento, Are The Names Given In Spain To The Councils Of The Towns And Villages. These Councils Are In General Composed Of The Corregidor, Alcalde, Regidores, Jurados, And Personeros, Or Hombres-buenos. All These Officers, With The Exception Of The Corregidor, Who Was Always Appointed ...

King
King. The Primary Signification Of This Word Is A Person In Whom Is Vested The Higher Executive Functions In A Sove Reign State, Together With A Share, More Or Less Limited, Of The Sovereign Power. The State May Consist Of A Vast Assem Blage Of Persons, Like The French Or ...