HOLY ALLIANCE. The name com monly given to the convention concluded at Paris on the 26th September, 1815, be tween Alexander, Emperor of Russia, Francis, Emperor of Austria, and Frede rick William, King of Prussia. The draught of the convention was shown to Lord Castlereagh by the Emperor of Russia before it had been seen by either the Emperor of Austria or the King of Prussia. (Debates in Parliament.) It was signed by the three princes with their own hands, without being countersigned by any minister. The document, which was first published by Alexander on Christmas-day following, commenced by an announcement of the intention of the subscribing parties to act for the future upon the precepts of the gospel ; which they define to be those of justice, Chris tian charity, and peace. Then follow three articles, which, after stating the Scriptural command to all men to con sider one another as brethren, deduce from it the inference, that the three con tracting princes will remain united to each other by the bonds of a true and in dissoluble fraternity, and that they will conduct themselves to their subjects and armies as the fathers of families. The third article is an invitation to other powers to join the confederacy. When this treaty was communicated to the Eng lish court, a reply was returned to the effect, that the forms of the British con stitution did not permit the king formally to accede to it, but that no other power could be more inclined to act upon the principles which it seemed to involve. At this time many liberal politicians through out Europe, especially in Germany, looked to the Holy Alliance with most san guine expectations of its happy results.
Most of the European princes finally became members of the Holy Alliance. At the congress of Aix-la-Chapelle, held in 1818, a declaration was prepared and subsequently published which stated that peace was the object of the alliance. This congress was the first of a series of con gresses which were held for the purpose of regulating the policy of the Continent, and of keeping down especially the Gee man, Italian, and Spanish liberals. [Cos muss.] In 1821 England withdrew from the political system which the Holy Alliance was endeavouring to establish. The allied powers had issued a circular on the 8th December, 1820, from Trop pau, where they were then assembled in congress, to consider the means of putting down the revolution which had just taken place in Naples. This note, which was addressed to the ministers and charge's d'affaires at the German and northern courts, drew from Lord Castlereagh, the then English minister for foreign affairs, a despatch addressed to his Majesty's missions at foreign courts, and dated the 19th January, 1821, in which it was inti mated that this government could not acquiesce in the principles announced in the circular of the allied princes, or in their proposed application. England also protested against the invasion of Spain in 1823. After the death of the Emperor Alexander it may Ise difficult to say whether or not the convention so called had any substantial existence.