LIEUTENANT is an officer who dis charges the duties of a superior in his name and during his absence ; and who acts immediately in subordination to him when he is present.
Thus, in military affairs, the lieutenant general and the lieutenant-colonel respec tively superintend the economy and the movements of the army and the battalion under those who hold the chief command. The lieutenant of a company is also im-' mediately subordinate to the captain, in whose absence he has the same powers. In the British service the lieutenants of the three regiments of foot guards have the rank of captain : in the royal regi ment of artillery, the royal corps of en gineers and marines, and also In the fusiliers and rifle brigade, there beinT no ensigns, the subaltern officers are distin guished as first and second lieutenants.
In Ward's Animadversions of War' (1639), it is said, A lieutenant is an officer of high credit and reputation, and he ought in all respects to bee well indoc trinated and qualified in the arts military, and not inferior in knowledge to any officer of higher authority ; for an unskil ful captaine may better demesne himselfe with an experienced lieutenant than an unskilful lieutenant can fudge with a skil ful captaine.'
The price of a lieutenant's commission is, according to the present regulation,— s. d.
Life-Guards 1785 daily pay 10 4 Horse-Guards 1600 „ 10 4 Dragoons . 1190 „ 9 0 Foot-Guards 2050 „ 7 4 Line . . . 700 „ 6 6 A lieutenant in the royal navy takes rank as a captain in the army, and the number appointed to ships of war varies with their rate. A ship of the first rate has eight lieutenants, besides supernu meraries ; those of the second, third, &c. rates, have respectively one less than the number appointed to the preced ing rate ; so that a sixth-rate vessel has three : sloops and bomb-vessels have only two. The monthly pay of a tirst-lieute nau:. of seven years' standing, in ships of the three first rates, and that of lieute nants commanding gun brigs, schooners, and cutters, is 11/. 10s. The monthly pay of other lieutenants, for ships of all rates, is 91. 4s.