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array, counties, commissions and crown

LORD-LIEUTENANT. It was for merly usual for the crown, from time to time, to issue commissions of array, re quiring certain experienced persons to muster and array the inhabitants of the counties to which such commissioners were sent. They were directed to put into military order those who were ca pable of performing military service, and to distrain such as were not qualified to serve, but were possessed of real or per sonal property, to furnish armour to their more vigorous countrymen ; and they were to erect beacons when necessary. The form of these commissions, after much complaint, was settled by statute, and may be seen at length in the Parlia ment-rolls of 5 Hen. IV., 1403-4, vol. iii. p. 527.

In the sixteenth century these com missions of array appear to have generally given place to commissions of lieutenancy, by which nearly the same powers as those of the old commissions of array were con ferred on certain persons as standing re presentatives of the crown for keeping the counties for which they were ap pointed in military order. In 1545 a commission "de arraiatione et capitaneo generali contra Francos " issued to the duke of Norfolk, constituting him the king's lieutenant, and captain-general of all captains, vice-captains, men-at-arms, armed men, archers, and all others re tained or to be retained against the French, in the counties of Essex, Suffolk, Norfolk, Hertford, Cambridge, Hunting don, Lincoln, Rutland, Warwick, North ampton, Leicester, and Bedford. A simi

lar commission issued to the duke of Suf folk for the counties of Kent, Sussex, Surrey, Hants, Wilts, Berks, Oxford, Middlesex, Bucks, Worcester. and Here ford, and London; and to John Russell, knight, Lord Russell, keeper of the privy seal, for the counties of Dorset, Somerset, Devon, Cornwall, and Gloucester. (Ry mer.) These officers are however spoken of by Camden, in the reign of Elizabeth, as extraordinary magistrates, constituted only in times of difficulty and danger, which was the case with commissioners of array, as appears from the recitals in their commission.

The right of the crown to issue com missions of lieutenancy was denied by the Long Parliament, and this question formed the proximate cause of the rup ture between Charles I. and his subjects. Upon the Restoration the right of the crown to issue such commissions was es tablished by a declaratory act, 14 Charles II., cap. 3.

The authorities and duties of the lord lieutenant and of his temporary vice lieutenants, and of his permanent deputy*.

lieutenants, have latterly been fixed and regulated by the militia acts. [MILITIA.]