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Mar Uis

marquis, title, earl, created, duke, reign and marquises

MAR UIS, a title of honour in Eng land. Persons who have this title are the second in the five orders of Eng lish nobility : dukes are the first. The younger sons of marquises are addressed as " my lord," as Lord Henry Petty, Lord John Thynne.

All titles of honour seem to have been originally derived from offices. The term marquis designated originally per sons who had the care of the marches of a country. The word " marches" is the plural of " mark, " which in its poli tical sense signfies " boundaries." The "marches" in England, in the earlier period of our history, were the lands on the borders of England and Scotland, and England and Wales. In Germany the corresponding term to marquis is markgraf (margrave), which is " lord of the marches," or according to the German form, of the " mark." There were no English marquises be fore the reign of Richard II. In the reign of Edward III. a foreign marquis, the marquis of Ju)iers, was made an English peer with the title of earl of Cambridge, and this circumstance pro bably suggested to King Richard the in troduction of this new order of nobility. The person on whom it was conferred was his great favourite Robert de Vere, earl of Oxford, who was created duke of Ireland and marquis of Dublin in 1385. But three years after he was anointed and his honours forfeited.

In 1397 one of the illegitimate sons of John of Gaunt was created marquis of Dorset, but he was soon deprived of the title, and his son had only the earldom of Somerset. The title of marquis of Dorset was however revived in the same family in 1443, when also William de in Pole was made marquis of Suffolk.

In 1470 John Nevil, earl of Northum berland, brother to Richard Nevil, earl of Warwick, the king-maker, was made marquis Montacute, but he was soon after slain at the battle of Barnet, and the title became lost.

In 1475 Thomas Grey, earl of Hunt ingdon, son to the queen of King Edward IV., by her former husband, was made' marquis of Dorset ; and in 1489 Maurice Berkeley, earl of Nottingham, was made marquis of Berkeley. Henry VIII. made Henry Courtenay, earl of Devonshire, marquis of Exeter; and he made Anne Boleyn, a little before his marriage with her, marchioness of Pembroke. William

Parr, earl of Essex, brother of Queen Catherine Parr, was created marquis of Northampton by King Edward IV.; and William Powlett, earl of Wiltshire, mar quis of Winchester.

All these titles had become extinct in 1571, except that of marquis of Winches ter. This title still continues in the male representative of the original grantee, though for a century or more it was little heard of, being lost in the superior title of duke of Bolton.

Queen Elizabeth made no new marquis, nor did King James I. till the fifteenth year of his reign, when his great favourite, George Villiers, was created marquis of Buckingham. Charles I. advanced the earls of Hertford, Worcester, and New castle to be marquises of those places ; and Henry Pierrepoint, earl of Kingston, was made marquis of Dorchester.

Charles II. advanced the earl of Hali fax to be marquis of Halifax in 1682, and James II. made the earl of Powis marquis of Powis in 1687.

A new practice in relation to this title was introduced at the Revolution. This was the granting of the title of marquis as a second title when a dukedom was con ferred. Thus when Schomberg was made duke of Schomberg he was made also marquis of Harwich ; when the earl of Shrewsbury was made duke of Shrews bury he was also made marquis of Alton ; and when the earl of Bedtbrd was made duke of Bedford he was also made mar quis of Tavistock. There were many other creations of this kind in the reign of William III., and several of marquis ates only. Of the existing dukes ten have marquisates in the second title, which is borne by the eldest son during the life of the father.

The only marquis who sits in the House of Peers as a marquis, and whose title dates before the reign of George III., is the marquis of Winchester. The other marquises are all of recent creation, though most of them are old peers under inferior titles.

The title seems not to have been known in Scotland till 1599, when marquises of Huntley and Hamilton were created.