MILITARY FORCE. There are many circumstances to be taken into ao count in estimating the military power of a country : the character of the people, the spirit of the government under which they live, the natural features of their territory, must amongst other things have their due influence assigned to them. Such an estimate would lead to historical and geographical details, which cannot be treated of satisfactorily in a work like this. The strength of the army which each country in Europe keeps on foot is the most direct indication of its military power ; and so far as this is an exponent, the present military resources of all the principal countries in Europe and of the United. States of North America are shown in the following statements, which have been collected from the best and most recent authorities.
Austria.—The Austrian army, on the peace and war establishment, is as under Peace &tab- War Fatalr lishment. liahment.
Infantry .. 314,912 489,240 Cavalry .. 48,842 64,560 Artillery .. 25,675 In addition to the peace establishment there are 2167 engineers and miners and sappers ; horse and foot gendarmes in Lombardy, 3020 men ; quarter-master generals' staff, and pioneers, 4384 men; 4000 men and 6000 horses in the waggon train ; a regiment of guards, 666 men; 728 on the staff; and a battalion of pon tonniers The annual expenses of the army amount to 77,600,000 florins, —6,600,0004 Austria has a small naval force, which consists of 3 frigates, 2 corvettes, 3 brigs, and 49 other smaller vessels, the whole carrying 510 guns.
Bavaria.—The infantry of the line are 36,688 in number ; cavalry, 12,954; ar tillery, 5628 ; gendarmerie, 1875 ; besides engineers, sappers and miners, &c. The total strength of the army on the peace establishment is 58,239 men, and, an addition there are 4 companies of veterans. in time of war there is an army of reserve, which consists of a Landwehr of two bans, that is, raised by two levies. The expenses of the military department are 7,319,976 florins, =626,000/.
Belgium.—The army on the peace es tablishment consists of 2449 officers, and 29,397 non-commissioned officers and men. The sum expended in the de partment of the Minister of War is 28,022,000 fr., =1,220,000/. ; and there is a sum of 1,031,719fr„ =41,000/., expended under the Ministry of Marine.
Denmark.—Strength of the army on the peace establishment, 25,000 officers and men ; on the war establishment, 75,000. The navy consists of 6 ships of the line of 84 guns, 1 of 66 guns ; 8 frigates of from 40 to 48 guns ; and 16 smaller vessels, the whole number of guns for 31 vessels being 1126; and there are in addition, 92 gun boats, bombs, and other craft, and 4 steamers. The expenses of the army are 3.215,836 reichbankthalers, = 360,0001., and of the navy 1,047,050 reichbank thalers,= 97,0001.
France.—The army consists of 338,732 men, and the expenses of the ministry of war amount to 13,000,0001. There are at present— Infantry .. 214,778 Cavalry .. 58,389 Artillery .. 29,306 Engineers 8,770 Gendarmerie .. 16,125 Waggon Train, &c. 3,818 The national guards (militia) in France comprise all Frenchmen (ecclesiastics, students at the universities, &c., ex cepted) between 20 and 60. The ex penses of the ministry of marine amount to 3.584,0001. There are— Ships of the line, frigates, and corvettes . 229 99 99 building 48 War steamers . 53 99 building . 22 The personnel of the navy consists of 2 admirals, 10 vice-admirals, 20 rear-ad mirals, 100 captains of ships of the line, 200 captains of corvettes, 600 lieutenants, making altogether 1372 officers, besides 3438 men of the marine artillery, 16,123 marines, and 297 men of the marine gen darmerie. The force of 170 ships afloat consists of 1649 officers and 24,120 sailors, exclusive of ships laid up in ordinary.
Germanic Confederation.—One of the objects of the Confederation is mutual de fence against a common enemy, and the preservation of internal peace the Federative States is another object. [GER