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country, system, education and government

SCHOOLS. A school is a general name for any place of instruction. There are schools for young children, called Infant Schools; schools for children of more advanced age ; and schools for the higher branches of learning, as Grammar Schools, Colleges, and Universities. There are also schools for special branches of knowledge, as schools for Agriculture, Medicine, Theology, Law, and so forth.

The school systems of all nations have something peculiar ; and the peculiarities are closely connected with the political system of each country. A good system of schools of all kinds suited to the wants of a political community perhaps exists in no country, though some of the Ger man states have perhaps approached nearer to establishing such a system than any other countries. There are two modes in which good schools may be established : a government may make the whole school system a part of ad ministration, and leave very little to indi vidual enterprise and competition ; or the establishment of schools of all kinds may be left nearly altogether to individual enterprise. Perhaps in no country has either the one or the other mode been altogether followed. Prussia is an in stance in which the government has ap parently done most in the way of direct ing the establishment and management of schools ; and in England, of all coun tries which have attained a high degree of wealth and power in modern times, the government has perhaps done the least, though perhaps in no country have benevolent individuals and associations of individuals contributed so largely to the establishment of permanent places of education. England is also the country

in which there are most schools kept by individuals for the object of private profit.

It is impossible to consider a state well organised which shall not, to some degree and in some manner, superintend all places for education. It is equally im possible to view education as well or ganised in a state, if all competition shall be excluded from the system ; and in fact there is no country, not even those in which education is most directly made a branch of administration, in which some competition of some kind does not exist. In fact, if it does not exist in some form and in some degree, there will he no efficient instruction.

The general consideration of this sub ject is contained in the article Enu CATION.