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Proclamation
Proclamation. By The Consti Tution Of England, The King Possesses The Prerogative Of Issuing Proclamations; For Although This Authority Is Exercised By The Lord Mayor In The City Of London, And By The Heads Of Some Other Corpo Rations In Other Cities, For Certain Limited Purposes, It Is Always Founded ...

Proctor
Proctor, An Officer Of The Ecclesias Tical Courts, Whose Business Is That Of An Agent Between His Clients And The Courts To Which He Is Attached. It Is A Shortened Form Of The Roman Term Procurator. He Stands In A Similar Situation To That Of An Attorney At Common Law ...

Profit
Profit, One Of The Three Parts Into Which All That Is Derived From The Soil By Labour And Capital Is Distributed, The Other Two Parts Being Wages And Rent : From These Three Sources Arise All The Revenues Of The Community. Profit Is Therefore The Surplus Which Remains To The ...

Prohibition
Prohibition, A Writ To Probibit A Court And Parties To A Cause Then De Pending Before It From Further Proceed Ing In The Cause. A Writ Of Prohibition May Issue From Any Of The Three Superior Courts Of Com Mon Law At Westminster, And Also From Each Of The Common-law ...

Property
Property Is Derived, Probably Through The French Language, From The Latin Word Proprietas, Which Is Used By Gains (ii. 89) As Equivalent To Ownership (dominium,) And Is Opposed To Possession. [possessro.) The Etymology Of The Word Proprietas (proprins) Suggests The Notion Of A Thing Being A Man's Own, Which General ...

Prostitution
Prostitution. The History Of Prostitution Would Make A Curious Chap Ter In The History Of Society. It Appears That In All Countries And In All Ages There Have Been Women Who Have Prostituted Their Bodies For Hire. The Practice Has Been Viewed In Very Different Lights In Different Countries, But ...

Protestant
Protestant, A General Term Com Prehending All Those Who Profess Chris Tianity, And Are Not In The Communion Of The Church Of Rome. There Is A Great Variety Of Opinion Among The Persons Thus Separated, In Points Of Faith, Church Order, And Discipline, But This Term Com Prehends Them All. ...

Public Records
Records, Public. Records, In The Legal Sense Of The Term, Are Contem Poraneous Statements Of The Proceedings In Those Courts Of Law Which Are Courts Of Record, Written Upon Rolls Of Parch Ment. (britton, C. 27.) Matters En Rolled Among The Proceedings Of A Court, But Not Connected With Those ...

Punishment
Punishment. The Verb To Punish (whence The Noun Substantive Punishment) Is Formed From The French Punir, Accord Ing To The Same Analogy As Furnish Is Formed From Fournir, Tarnish From Ternir, Finish From Finir, &c. The French Punir Is Derived From The Latin Punire, Anciently Pcenire, Which Is Connected With ...

Purveyance
Purveyance (purveyance, A Pro Viding), A Prerogative Formerly Enjoyed By The King Of England, Of Purchasing Provisions And Other Necessaries For The Use Of The Royal Household, And Of Em Ploying Horses And Carriages In His Ser Vice In Preference To All Other Persons, And Without The Consent Of The ...

Quarantine
Quarantine. Quarantine Regula Tions Are Regulations, Chiefly Of A Restric Tive Nature, For The Purpose Of Preventing The Communication From One Country To Another Of Contagious Diseases, By Means Of Men, Animals, Goods, Or Letters. The Term Quarantine Originally Signified A Period Of Forty Days During Which A Per Son ...

Quarter Sessions
Quarter-sessions. [summits.] Queen. The Saxon Cpen, Which Was Used To Denote Miter, Fenzina, Conjux, As Well As Women Of The Highest Rank. The Use Of It To Denote A Princess Who Reigns In Her Own Right, And Possesses All The Powers Which Belong To A Male Person Who Has Succeeded ...

Recognizance
Recognizance Is An Obligation Of Record, Entered Into Before Some Court Of Record, Or Magistrate Duly Authorised, By Which The Party Entering Into It (the Cog Nizor), Whose Signature Is Not Necessary, Acknowledges (recognizes) That He Owes A Sum Of Money To The King, Or To Some Private Individual, Who ...

Recorder
Recorder (recordator), A Judge, Described By Cowel As " He Whom The Mayor Or Other Magistrate Of Any City Or Town Corporate Having Jurisdiction, Or A Court Of Record, Within Their Precincts By The King's Grant, Doth Associate Unto Him For His Better Direction In Matters Of Jus Tice And ...

Recruiting
Recruiting Is The Act Of Raising Men For The Military Or Naval Service. As To The Military Service, Recruiting Is Done By Officers Appointed For The Pur Pose, Who Engage Men By Bounties To Enter As Private Soldiers Into Particular Regiments. The Officers, Commissioned And Non-commissioned, While So Em Ployed, ...

Recusants
Recusants Are Persons Who Refuse Or Neglect To Attend Divine Service On Sundays And Holidays, According To The Forms Of The Established Church. There Were Four Classes Of Offenders Under The Statutes Against Recusancy : Those Who Absented Themselves From The Public Service Of The Church From Indif Ference, Irreligion, ...

Regency Regent
Regent, Regency. These Words, Like Rex, Contain The Same Ele Ment As Repo, "to Rule," Regens, " Ruling ;" And Denote The Person Who Exercises The Power Of A King Without Being King, And The Office Of Such A Person, Or The Period Of Time During Which He Possesses The ...

Registration
Registration. The Registration Of Documents In Scotland Is A Great And Important System Intimately Connected With The Titles Of Real Or Heritable Pro Perty, And With The Execution Of The Law. It Is Thus Divided Into Two Distinct Depart Ments 'which May Be Considered Sepa Rately Registration For Preservation, ...

Registration Register
Register, Registration, Re Gistry. The Mere Possession Of Land Is Not Sufficient Evidence Of The Title To It, Except In Those Cases Where It Can Be Shown That It Has Been Held By A Party Who Sells Adversely For Such A Period As To Preclude Under The Operation Of The ...

Release
Release. " Releases Are In Divers Manners, Viz. : Releases Of All The Right Which A Man Hath In Lands Or Tenements ; And Releases Of Actions Personals And Rails, And Other Things." (litt 444.) The Former Kind Of Release May Be Considered As A Species Of Conveyance, And ...

Remainder
Remainder. An Estate In Re Mainder Is Defined By Coke To Be " A Remnant Of An Estate In Lands Or Tene Ments, Expectant On A Particular Estate, Created Together With The Same At One Time." According To This Definition, It Must Be An Estate In Lands Or Tenements, Including ...

Rent
Rent Is Defined By Mr. Ricardo To Be " That Portion Of The Produce Of The Earth Which Is Paid To The Landlord For The Use Of The Indestructible Powers Of The Soil. It Is Often, However (he Remarks), Con Founded With The Interest And Profit Of Capital, And In ...

Reports
Reports (in Law) Are Relations Of The Proceedings Of Courts Of Law And Equity. They Contain A Statement Of The Pleadings, The Facts, The Arguments Of Coun Sel, And The Judgment Of The Court In Each Case Reported. The Object Of Them Is To Establish The Law, And Prevent Conflicting ...

Reprieve
Reprieve (from The French Repris, Withdrawn) Means The Withdrawal Of A Prisoner From The Execution And Proceed Ing Of The Law For A Certain Time. Every Court Which Has Power To Award Execu Tion, Has Also Power, Either Before Or After Judgment, To Grant A Reprieve. The Consequence Of A ...

Republic
Republic Is Derived Immediately From The French Ripublique, And Ulti Mately From The Latin Res Publica. The Latin Expression Sea Publica Is Defined, By Facciolati, To Be "res Eommunis Et Puhlica Civium Una Viventium," And Cor Responds Very Closely With The English Word Commonwealth, As Used In Its Largest Acceptation ...

Reversion
Reversion. " Reversion Of Land Is A Certain Estate Remaining In The Lessor Or Donor, After The Particular Estate And Possession Conveyed To Another By Lease For Life, For Years, Or Gift In Tail. And It Is Called A Reversion In Respect Of The Possession Separated From It : So ...

Right
Right. It Has Been Shown In Lew [1. P.174] That The Word Right Occurs Under T Ome Form In All The Teutonic Languages ; Nd That It Bears A Double Meaning Equi Latent To The Signification Of The Latin Word Jus, Namely, Law And Faculty. The Anglo-saxon Word Bore This ...

Right Of Search
Search, Right Of. The Gene Ral Principles Upon Which That Part Of The Law Of Nations Is Constructed Which Re Spects The Usages To Be Observed Towards Neutral Powers In Time Of War By The Belligerent Powers, Have Been Explained Under The Head Of Blockade. Here It Is Only Necessary ...

Rights Of Common
Common, Rights Of, In Law, Is The Right Of Taking A Profit In The Land Of Another In Common With Others. It May Either Be Such A Right As Is Enjoyed In Common With Others To The Exclusion Of The Owner Of The Land, Or It May Not Exclude The ...

Riot
Riot. Riot Is A Misdemeanour At Common Law. The Definition Of It Given By Hawkins, And Which Appears To Have Been Very Generally Adopted Without Much Alteration By Subsequent Writers, Is " A Tumultuous Disturbance Of The Peace By Three Persons Or More, Assembling Together Of Their Own Authority, With ...

River
River. In A Legal Sense Rivers Are Divisible Into Fresh And Salt-water Rivers. Salt-water Rivers Are Those Rivers Or Parts Of Rivers In Which The Tide Ebbs And Flows. Rivers Are Also Divisible Into Public Or Navigable Rivers And Private Rivers. The Property In Fresh-water Rivers, Whether Public Or Private, ...

Roman Constitutions
Constitutions, Roman. The Word Constitutio (from Constituere, To Set Up, To Establish) Signifies Any Disposition Or Appointment ; For Example, An Edict Of The Prtetor Is Called Constitutio (1n I. 4, Tit. 2, S. 1. 9). The Decrees.and Decisions Of Roman Emperors Are Also Called Con Stitutiones ; And, According ...

Roman Corn Trade
Corn-trade,roman. What We Know Of The Ancient Corn-trade Of Italy Mainly Relates To The City Of Rome. From An Early Period It Belonged To The Admi Nistration To See That The City Was Duly Supplied With Grain. The Immediate Neighbourhood Of Rome Did Not Supply The Wants Of The City, ...

Roman Law
Roman Law. The Historical Ori Gin Of The Roman Law Is Unknown, And Its Fundamental Principles, Many Of Which Eves Survived The Legislation Of Justi Nian, Are Older Than The Oldest Records Of Italian History. The Fbundation Of The Strict Rules Of The Roman Law As To Familia, Agnatio, Marriage, ...

Roman Marriage
Marriage, Roman. The Right Conception Of A Roman Marriage And Of Its Legal Consequences Is Essential To Enable Us To Approximate To A Right Understand Ing Of The Old Roman Polity. It Is Also An Important Element In The History Of The Condition Of Women In Civilized Europe. Children Were ...

Roman Marriage Wife Wife
Wife, Roman. [marriage.] Wife. (scotland). The Moveable Or Personal Estate Of A Husband And Wife Is Under The Administration Of The Husband ; According To The Phraseology Of The Law It Is Called "the Goods In Communion," Because On The Dissolution Of The Marriage By The Death Of Either Party, ...

Roman Will
Will, Roman. A Roman Will Was Called Testamentum. Testamentum Was Defined By The Jurists Of The Imperial Period To Be "a Legal Mode Of A Man's De Claring His Intention In Due Form, To Take Effect After His Death." The Person Who Made Such Declaration Was Called Testator. The Power ...

Royal Assent
Assent, Royal. When A Bill Has Through All Its Stages In Both Passed Houses Of Parliament, If It Is A Money Bill, It Is Sent Back To The Charge Of The Officers Of The House Of Commons, In Which It Had Of Course Originated; But If Not A Bill Of ...

Royal College Of Physicians
Physicians, Royal College Of, Was Founded Through The Instrumen Tality Of Linacre, Who Obtained, By His Interest With Cardinal Wolbey, Letters Pa Tent From Henry Viii., Dated In The Year 1518. This Charter Granted To John Chambre, Thomas Linacre, Ferdinand De Victoria, Nicholas Halsewell, John Fran Cis And Robert Yaxley, ...

Rubric
Rubric (from The Latin Rubrica, A Kind Of Red Earth Or Stone), A Name Given To The Titles Of Chapters In Certain Ancient Law-books : And More Especially To The Rules And Directions Laid Down In Our Liturgy For Regulating The Order Of The Service. These, In Both Instances, Were ...

Rwansea
Rwansea. Ore Smelted . 56,285 Tons Value . . . 674,0121. Produce Per Cent. Of Metal 15 Quantity Of Copper . 8,476 Tons Of The Above, The Following Portion Was Foreign Ore : Quantity Of Ore . . 30,367 Tons Metallic Copper Produced 6,510 Produce Percent. Of Metal ...

Sacrilege
Sacrilege (from The Latin Soon Legium) Is " The Felonious Taking Of Any Goods Out Of Any Parish-church Or Other Church Or Chapel." By The Common Law It Was A Capital Offence, Though The Of Fender Seems To Have Been Entitled To The Benefit Of Clergy At The Discretion Of ...

Sanctuary
Sanctuary, A Consecrated Place Which Gave Protection To A Criminal Taking Refuge There. The Word Also Signified The Privilege Of Sanctuary, Which Was Granted By The King For The Protection Of The Life Of An Offender. Under The Do Minion Of The Normans There Appear Early To Have Existed Two ...

Sanity Cap
Sanity. Cap Is A Term Used In Com Merce To Express The Stock Of The Mer Chant, Manufacturer, Or Trader, Used In Carrying On His Business, In The Purchase Or Manufacture Of Commodities, And In The Payment Of The Wages Of Labour ; And Is Understood Not Only Of Money, ...

Savings Banks
Savings' Banks Are Banks Esta Blished To Encourage Habits Of Prudence In The Poorer Classes, Who Were Previously Without Any Places Where They Could Safely And Profitably Deposit Their Savings. The Origin Of Savings' Banks Has Been Attributed To The Rev. Joseph Smith, Of Wendover, Who, In The Year 1799, ...

Schools
Schools. A School Is A General Name For Any Place Of Instruction. There Are Schools For Young Children, Called Infant Schools; Schools For Children Of More Advanced Age ; And Schools For The Higher Branches Of Learning, As Grammar Schools, Colleges, And Universities. There Are Also Schools For Special Branches ...

Scire Facias
Scire Facias, A Writ Sued Out For The Purpose Either Of Enforcing The Exe Cution Of, Or Of Vacating, Some Already Existing Record. It Directs The Sheriff To Give Notice (" Scire Facias," Whence The Name) To The Party Against Whom It Is Obtained To Appear And Show Cause Why ...

Scotch Annuity
Annuity, Scotch. The 53 Geo. Iii. C. 131, Does Not Extend To Scotland. In That Part Of The Country A Fixed Sum Per Annum Paid Periodically, Though Se Cured On Heritable Property, Is Called An Annuity. Such An Annuity Is Generally Secured For Life, And It May Either Be Created ...

Scotland Poor Laws
Poor Laws, Scotland. The Foundation Of The Old Poor Law Of Scotland, Was The Act Of Parliament 1579, C. 74, Which In So Many Respects Re Sembled The Celebrated English Statute Of The Fourteenth Of Elizabeth, Passed A Few Years Earlier, As To Have Been Con Sided A Mere Adaptation ...

Secretary Of State
Secretary Of State. The Office Of Secretary Of State Is One Of Very Antient Date, And The Person Who Fills It Has Been Called Variously " The King's Chief Secretary," "principal Secretary," And, After The Restoration, " Principal Se Cretary Of State." He Was In Fact The King's Private Secretary, ...

Seisin
Seisin Is A Term Properly Applied To Estates Of Freehold Only, So That A Man Is Said To Be Seised Of An Estate Of Inheritance Or For Life, And To Be Possessed Of A Chattel Interest, Such As A Term Of Years. This Distinction Does Not Appear To Have Existed ...

Servant
Servant, One Who Has Contracted To Serve Another. The Person Whom He Has Contracted To Serve Is Styled Master. Servants Are Of Various Kinds : Apprentices [apprenticx], Domestic Servants Who Re Side Within The House Of The Master, Ser Vants In Husbandry, Workmen Or Artificers, And Clerks, Warehousemen, &c. From ...

Sessions
Sessions. A Session Is The Peri During Which Any Court Of Law Sits For The Transaction Of Judicial Business; But The Term Sessions Is Commonly Used To Denote The Meeting Of The Justices Of A County, Or Other District Which Has A Separate Commission Of The Peace, For The Execution ...

Sewer
Sewer, A Place, According To Lord Coke, Where Water Issues, Or, As Is Said Vulgarly, "sues," Whence The Word Suers, Or Sewer. The Word Has Acquired Noto Riety As Giving The Title To " The Law Of Sewers," An Important Branch Of English Law. According To That Law, The Super ...

Sheriff Scotland
Sheriff (scotland). In Scot Land The Duties Of The Sheriff Are Not, As In England, Almost Entirely Executive. He Exercises An Extensive Judicial Authority, And A Large Portion Of The General Litiga Tion Of The Country Proceeds Before This Class Of Local Judges. In Earlier Times His Authority Appears To ...