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Toning Bromide Prints

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TONING BROMIDE PRINTS There are various methods of toning bromide prints ; the most satisfactory being those that produce various shades of brown-black and cold and warm brown, although red tones are very suitable for flower studies and portraits of children, etc. Green and blue tones are the least desirable. In monochrome work it is rarely desirable to imitate the colour of the subject.

In all toning processes, the method of pro ducing the print considerably influences the final colour and quality. A strong, rich print is essential for securing rich tones, and a strong print cannot be obtained from a weak, flat negative. Prom a good negative, a strong print can only be obtained by correct exposure and full development ; over-exposure and short development yield a print that will never tone to a rich colour ; the result is always weak and poor. Another source of imperfect results in toning is the very common practice of using one quantity of developer for several prints. Those developed last will invariably give weak and poor colours when toned. Fresh developer should be used for every print, excepting small prints,for which, relatively, a large quantity of solution is employed. For these, two prints may be developed in succession in one quantity of solution, but this should be the limit.

Thorough fixation is essential to success in toning bromide prints ; thorough washing is often equally important. Bromide prints should always be dried after fixing and washing before toning ; with some processes this affects the colour very materially.

Copper Toning.—Very delicate red tones, red-chalk, or rather sanguine, can be obtained by toning with copper. For the formula, see

" Copper Toning." Platinum Toning.—Good sepia tones may be obtained by this method, which is fully described under a separate heading.

Vanadium Toning.—A good green tone can be obtained by this process. (See " Vanadium Toning." ) Iron Toning.—Rich blue tones are obtained by iron toning ; the bath should be prepared by adding each ingredient in the same order as in the formula :— Ferric am.-citrate . 3 grs. .62 g.

Pot. ferricyanide . 3 „ •62 „ Nitric acid . . 6 mins 1'2 ccs.

Water . . . 8 oz. 800 „ The print tones rapidly in this solution to a rich blue ; it requires washing in various changes of water until the whites lose the stain acquired during toning, and become quite pure. It is better to prolong the washing a little beyond the visible clearing. The permanency of prints toned either by iron or vanadium is doubtful.

"Hypo "-alum Toning.—A method of sulphide toning by means of a solution of " hypo " and alum. The colour is a purple-brown, and the results are thoroughly permanent. Working details are given under the heading of " Alum ' hypo ' Toning." Sulphide Toning.—A process of toning by the use of u solution of sodium sulphide which is in every respect the most satisfactory method of toning bromide prints. Very rich, pure brown colours are obtained, the process is simple and certain, and the prints after toning are quite permanent. The process, one of combined toning and intensification, is fully described under the heading " Sulphide Toning."