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Cyclopedia of Photography

Printing In Clouds
Clouds, Printing In The Landscape Or Marine Picture Should Be Printed First And The Clouds Added Subsequently. No Attempt Should Ever Be Made To Block Out The Sky On The Landscape Negative, Even If It Should Print To A Pale Grey Tone. Painting Out A Sky Leaves The Outlines Of ...

Printing On Fabrics
Fabrics, Printing On Fabrics Already Sensitised For The Bromide And Platinotype Processes May Be Purchased, And They Are Used In The Same Way As Bromide And Platinotype Papers. Fabrics Are Easily Pre Pared For Photographic Printing, And The Blue Print Process Is Perhaps The Simplest. The Fabrics Mostly Employed Are ...

Printing With Cobalt Salts
Cobalt Salts, Printing With Cobalt Belongs To The Same Group Of Metals As Iron And Manganese, And, Like These, Many Of Its Salts Are Sensitive To Light. Although No Practical Process Has So Far Been Founded On This Fact, It Is As Well To Record Briefly The Researches Of A. ...

Printing With Ferric Salts
Ferric Salts, Printing With The Light-sensitiveness Of The Iron (ferric) Salts Is The Basis Of A Large Number Of Printing Processes, Including Chrysotype, Cyanotype, Kallitype, The Sepia Printing Process, Amphitype, The Ink Process, And Platinotype. In All These The Ferric Salt Is Reduced By Light To The Ferrous State. The ...

Printing With Ganiclactate
Manganese, Printing With : Ganic Lactate Printing A Novel Printing Process Worked Out By The Brothers Lumiere In 1895. For The Sensitising Solution, Too Grs. Of Potassium Permanganate Are Dissolved In 2 Oz. Of Water, The Measure Being Placed In Cold Water So As To Keep The Solution As Cool ...

Prints
Prints Photographic Prints Embossed In Low Relief. Platinotype Prints Are The Best For This Purpose, But Others May Be Used If Hardened In A To Per Cent, Solution Of Formaline. A Folding Wooden Frame A Is Required Large Enough To Take An Unmounted Print. The Opening In The Frames Must ...

Process
Process Familiarly Known As " Bi-gum," This Process Depends On Principles First Laid Down By Poitevin In X855. Briefly, It Consists In Coating Paper With A Mixture Of Gum And Pigment Sensitised With Potassium Bichromate Solution. This Paper Is Printed Under A Negative, The Bichrom Ated Colloid Becoming More Or ...

Process
Process Known Also As " Cyanotype " (negative) And " Ferro-prussiate " Process, And Largely Used By Engineers, Architects, Etc., For Reproducing Technical Drawings. It Is One Of The Oldest Photographic Printing Processes, Having Been Invented By Sir John Herschel In /84o. Paper Is Coated With A Mixture Of Ammonio-citrate ...

Process_2
Process (fr., Procede En Demi Teintes Or Simi/i ; Ger., Halbtonverfahrung Or Autotypie) A Process In Which The Half-tones Of A Photo Graph Are Reproduced By Breaking Up The Image Into Dots Of Varying Size, Transferring This Dot Image To A Metal Plate, And Etching The Dots Into Relief For ...

Process_3
Process A Method Of Producing Prints In Pigment Or Ink Applied With A Brush. As Contact Printing Is An Essential Part Of The Process It Follows That An Enlarged Negative Must Be Made Before Such A Print Can Be Obtained Of A Subject Originally Taken On A Small Plate. It ...

Proportional Scales And Rules
Proportional Scales And Rules Various Forms Of Proportional Scales Or Rules Have Been Suggested For The Use Of Photographers And Process Workers, Principally With The Object Of Calculating Exposures And The Proportions Of Reductions And Enlargements. J. A. C. Bran Fill's Proportional Rule, A, Has Three Members, A, B, And ...

Psychic Photography
Psychic Photography Known Also As " Spirit Photography." Many Persons Have Claimed To Be Able To Photograph Psychic And Astral Forms ; Hence The Name. Psychic Photographs Are Divided Into Many Classes, Including (i) Portraits Of Psychic Entities Not Seen By Normal Vision. (2) Pictures Of Objects Not Seen Or ...

Pyro Ammonia
Pyro-ammonia The Use Of Pyro With Ammonia As A Developer Dates From 1862, And It Had Its Origin In America, Where Ammonia Was First Used For Fuming Dry Plates Before The Application Of An Acid Solution Of Pyro. Major Russell, The Author Of The Tannin Process, Was The First (in ...

Pyro Soda And Pyro Potash Factors
Pyro-soda And Pyro-potash Factors Pyro Bromide Factor Grs. Per Or. Grs. Per Or. .. 9 5 3 • * • • • • 4 4 3+ I O 18 3 .. O 0 8 6+ Factors For Soft, Normal, And Strong Contrasts With " Tabloid " Formulae (burroughs And Well ...

Pyro Stains On Negatives
Pyro Stains On Negatives These Are Of A Yellow Colour, And Are Caused By Exposure Of The Film When Wet With The Developer To The Air, Or By Using Insufficient Sodium Sulphite In The Developer. It Is Not All Workers Who Object To Them. To Obviate Them, Use A So ...

Pyro For Bromide Paper
Pyro For Bromide Paper Pyro When Properly Used Gives Exquisite Brown Tones On Bromide Papers, The Pyro-acetone Formula Being Perhaps The Best : A. Pyro . . . 220 Grs. 5o G. Sodium Sulphite . 1,320 „ 300 „ Sulphuric Acid . 3o Mins. 6'25 Ccs. Water To . 10 ...

Pyrocatechin
Pyrocatechin (pr., Pyrocatechine ; Ger., Brenzcatechin) Ortho-dihydroxybenzene; Known Also As Oxy Phenic Acid And Catechol. Solu Bility, I In Of Cold Water. It Was Sug Gested As A Developer In 188o, And Came Into Use In 1899. It Occurs In Prismatic Colourless Crystals. It Does Not Stain Or Fog ; ...

Pyrogallic Acid Pyro
Pyro, Pyrogallic Acid, Pyro Gallol, Or Trihydroxyben Zene (pr., Acide Pyrogallique ; Ger., Pyrogallol, Pyrogallussdure) Molecular Weight, 126. It Occurs In Fine White Feathery Crystals Produced By Sub Limation, And In Heavy Prismatic Crystals Of A More Compact Form (see " Pyraxe "). It Is Sold Generally In Blue Bottles ...

Pyroligneous Acid
Pyroligneous Acid Crude Acetic Acid. (see " Developers, Mixed Or Combined.") Dr. Eder And Others Have Recommended The Use Of The Alkali Potash To Take The Place Of Ammonia Or Soda In The Developer. Several Advantages Have Been Claimed For It—namely, The Stable Nature Of The Alkali And Its Freedom ...

Quick Prints From Wet
Quick Prints From Wet Negatives The Work Of Taking A Print From A Wet Nega Tive. A Sheet Of Bromide Or Gaslight Paper Is Soaked In Water Until Quite Limp, And The Negative Placed In The Water With It. The Two Are Then Brought Into Contact, Film To Film, While ...

Re Storing Faded Negatives
Faded Negatives And Prints, Re Storing Faded Prints Are More Commonly Met With Than Faded Negatives, But Whichever Is Treated,. Success Is More Certain If The Actual Cause Of Fading Is Known (see " Fading, Causes Of ").. When Negatives Fade The Trouble Is Usually Due Either To Insufficient Fixing ...

Reducing Negatives By Chemical
Reducing Negatives By Chemical Means Most Of The Methods Of Reducing Negatives Modify The Gradation By Acting To A Greater Degree At One End Of The Scale Than At The Other. The Special Character Of Each Being Known, Advantage May Be Taken Of Its Properties To Improve Or Modify An ...

Reflex Camera
Reflex Camera (fr., Chambre Miroir ; Ger., Spiegel-reflex Kamera) Synonym, Reflector Camera. A Camera In Which The Image Is Focused On A Horizontal Ground Glass Screen By The Aid Of A Surface Silvered Mirror Inclined At An Angle Of 45°, The Latter Being Automatically Swung Out Of The Light Are ...

Registration Of Photographs
Registration Of Photographs (see " Copyright.") A Method Of Converting Into A Haloid Salt The Silver Which Forms The Image Of A Negative, And Then, By Re-development, Obtaining A Negative Of, If Required, Reduced Density Compared With The Original. One Of The Most Simple And Satis Factory Formula Is : ...

Rembrandt Process
Rembrandt Process An Adaptation Of The Photogravure Process To Rotary Mechanical Printing, Invented By Karl Klic, And Worked In England Since About 1895 By A Lancaster Firm. The Details Of Their Method Have Been Kept Secret, But It Is Assumed That A Print On Carbon Tissue Is Made Under A ...

Removing Fixed Stoppers
Stoppers, Removing Fixed Prevention Being Better Than Cure, Both Necks And Stoppers Of Glass Bottles Should Be Lubricated With Tallow, Vaseline, Etc. The Various Methods Of Removing Stoppers Have Been Summarised As Follows :—" (1) Press The Stopper (longways) In One Direction With The Thumb (grasping The Bottle With The ...

Removing Stains
Stains, Removing Stains On Hands.—pyro And Some Other De Velopers Stain The Fingers By Prolonged Use ; Care Must Be Taken To Avoid Putting The Fingers In Solu Tions, Excepting When Absolutely Necessary. Any Tendency To Staining May Be Entirely Obviated By Rinsing The Fingers And Immersing Them For A ...

Rendering Colours In Monochrome
Monochrome, Rendering Colours In The Ordinary Photograph Is Limited In The Sense That The Various Colours Of The Original Are All Recorded By Different Shades Of Grey Or Monochrome. Should A Yellow Daffodil Be Placed In Front Of A Violet Screen, The Yellow Of The Flower And The Violet Of ...

Residues
Residues (pr., Residus ; Ger., Racksteinde) The Collection Of Residues, From The Amateur's Point Of View, Is Hardly Worth The Trouble Unless He Uses A Very Large Quantity Of Material, Though Probably About 6o To 7o Per Cent. Of The Total Sensitive Salts Are Not Used In The Formation Of ...

Resinised Paper
Resinised Paper (pr., Papier Resini ; Ger., Harzemulsionspapier) The Use Of Resin For Photographic Paper Was First Suggested In 1863, And The Method Adopted Was To Make An Alcoholic Solution Of Resins With A Chloride And Brush This Over The Paper Or Immerse The Latter In The Solution, Dry, And ...

Restoring Fogged Dry Plates
Fogged Dry Plates, Restoring Plates Which Have Been Accidentally Exposed To Light (lightstruck Is A Term Sometimes Used), May Be Made Almost As Good As New, With The Exception That Their Speed Is Reduced, By Treat Ment For About Five Minutes In Either Of The Following Restoring Baths :— Chromic ...

Restrainer
Restrainer (fr., Moderateur ; Ger., Zartich Halter) Any Compound Which Will Check The Too Ener Getic Action Of A Developer. The Most Popular Restrainer For Alkaline Developers Is A Soluble Bromide, Which Works Well With The Caustic Alkalis, And In Some Cases With The Carbonates. When The Alkali Is Ammonia, ...

Retouching
Retouching The Working Up Of Negatives And Prints By Hand. In This Article Only The Retouching Of Negatives Will Be Considered. For Prints, See " Working-up Prints." It Is Rarely Desirable To Retouch A Landscape Negative, But Portrait Negatives Are Commonly Retouched By Professional Workers. The Easiest Way Of Improving ...

Rodinal
Rodinal A One-solution Developer Consisting Of A Con Centrated Solution Of Para-amido-phenol Introduced By Andresen ; It Needs Only The Addition Of Water To Make A Working Solution. Formerly It Was Obtainable In Powder Form, Under The Name Of " Unal." The Following Is One Of The Formul Given By ...

Safe Light
Safe Light (fr., Eclairage Inactinique ; Ger., Sicheres Licht Dunkelzimmerbeleucht Ung) A Term Applied To The Light Obtained With The Use Of Coloured Filters Placed In Front Of The Dark-room Illuminant. The Ordinary Commercial Coloured Glass Is Rarely Of Any Practical Use, Except For The Manipulation Of Positive Materials, And ...

Sale Of Poisons
Poisons, Sale Of The Following Statement Is Due To E. J. Wall, And Is Reprinted From The Photographic Dealer. According To The Pharmacy Act, 1868, It Is Illegal For Any Person Not Being A Duly Registered Pharmaceutical Chemist Or Chemist And Druggist, To Sell Certain Chemicals And Substances, Which Are ...

Screen Plate Colourphoto
Screen - Plate Colour Photo Graphy The Process Of Producing Photographs In The Colours Of Nature By Means Of A Screen Plate Is Based On The Three-colour Process Enunciated By Clerk-maxwell, But Instead Of Using Three Sepa Rate Colour Filters And Three Separate Plates And Prints, The Colour Filters Are ...

Self Developing Plates
Self-developing Plates Dry Plates Carrying The Developer In Or On The Film, Or On The Glass Side, And Requiring Only To Have Water Applied For The Developing Action To Take Place. An Early Form Was That Introduced By Dr. Bmcklandt, Who Soaked Dry Plates In A Solution Containing Salicylic Acid ...

Sensitometry
Sensitometry (pr., Sensitomitrie ; Ger., Empfindlichkeitsmessung) Soon After The Introduction Of The Gelatine Dry Plate, It Was Usual To Express The Speed Of The Emulsion As " X Times," Which Meant That It Was X Times The Speed Of A Wet Collodion Plate. This Speed Was No Fixed Quantity, And ...

Shutters
Shutters At., Obturatewrs ; Ger., Ver Schliisse) Mechanical Devices For Exposing The Plate. Their Use Is Necessitated By The Fact That Expos Ures Shorter Than One-quarter Of A Second, Cannot Be Given By Hand, Nor Even That Without Risk Of Shaking The Camera. There Are Many Kinds Of Shutters, A ...

Silhouettes
Silhouettes (fr., Silhouettes ; Ger., Schat Tenbilder) Black Profile Portraits (as A) Showing Outline Only And No Details, So-called From The French Man Etienne De Silhouette. They May Be Pro Duced Photographically, As Shown In B. A White Sheet B Is Hung In An Open Doorway ; The Room Being ...

Silver Albuminate
Silver Albuminate (pr., Albuminate D'argent ; Ger., Silberalbuminat) A Very Ill-defined Compound Of Silver Nitrate And Albumen, Which Was Supposed To Form One Of The Sensitive Compounds In The Old Sensitised Albumen Paper. Silver (fr., Am Monio-nitrate D'argent ; Ger., Salpeter Saures Silberoxydammoniah, Or Silber Oxydammonialt) Synonym, Ammonio-oxide Of Silver. ...

Silver Bromide
Silver Bromide (fr., Bromure D'argent ; Ger., Bromsilber) Synonym, Bromide Of Silver. Agbr. Mole Cular Weight, X88. Solubilities, Practically In Soluble In Water, Alcohol And Ether, Soluble In Ammonia, Potassium Cyanide And Sodium Hypo Sulphite. It Is A Yellow Amorphous Powder, Ob Tained By Adding Any Soluble Bromide To Silver ...

Silver Intensifier
Silver Intensifier The Silver Intensifier Has The Advantage That The Density Is Under Control, And Either Little Or Much Intensification Can Be Given. The Film Should Be Hardened In A Io Per Cent. Solution Of Formalise For Three Minutes And Then Washed In Water. Wellington's Formula (1889) Is : A. ...

Silver Iodide
Silver Iodide (pr., Lodure D'argent ; Ger., Lodsilber) Agi. Molecular Weight, 235. Solubilities, Practically Insoluble In Water, Alcohol, And Ether, Soluble In Potassium Cyanide, And " Hypo." It Is Obtained By Adding A Soluble Iodide To Silver Nitrate Solution ; When Precipitated In The Pre Sence Of Excess Of Alkaline ...

Silver Subhaloids
Silver Subhaloids Chemists Have Usually Considered That The Action Of Light Upon The Silver Haloids Was The Splitting Off Of A Molecule Of The Halogen And The Formation Of A Salt With Consequent Lower Pro Portion Of Halogen, Which May Be Represented By The Formula, 2agel = Cl Or 4age1 ...

Sizing
Sizing Raw Papers Generally Need To Be Sized Before Sensitising, Because The Size Fills Up The Pores And Keeps The Image On The Surface ; In Some Cases, Also, It Increases The Sensitiveness. As A General Rule, Sizing Improves Any Raw Paper. The Sizes Most Used Are Arrowroot And Gelatine, ...

Sketch Effects
Sketch Effects A Term Applied To Pictures In Which A Part Is Photographic, And The Remainder Hand-work With Pencil, Crayon, Etc. The Usual Plan Is To Work Up The Picture And Then To Copy And Print Dupli Cates. Sometimes The Sketch Effects Are Obtained By Using Platinotype Or Bromide Paper, ...

Snapshots
Snapshots A Common Term Designating So-called " Instan Taneous " Exposures Made With A Camera Held In The Hand. Unfortunately, It Suggests A Random And Unconsidered Operation Into Which A Large Element Of Chance Enters ; Whereas The Mere Fact That The Actual Exposure Given Was A Short One Does ...

Snow And Hoar Frost
Snow And Hoar Frost Photo Graphy The Characteristic Of Average Snow Views Is The Unusual Degree Of Light Contrast. Freshly Fallen Snow In Direct Sunlight Causes The Whitest Of Paper To Appear Grey By Comparison. Thus, In A Snow Scene The Tree-trunks, Buildings, Etc., Appear Much Darker Than Usual, And ...

Spectro Photometer
Spectro - Photometer (pr., Spectro Photorizetre ; Ger., Spektrophotometer) An Instrument By Means Of Which The Lumi Nosity Of Various Regions Of Two Spectra Can Be Directly Compared. Various Forms Have Been Suggested. There Is, First, The Double - Slit Photometer Of Vierorot, In Which The Lights To Be Compared ...

Spectrography
Spectrography (fr., Spectrophotographie; Ger., Spektrophotographie) Any Spectroscope May Be Converted Into A Spectrograph Or Camera For Photographing The Spectrum By Attaching To The Telescope A Camera Instead Of An Eyepiece. The Simplest Form Is That In Which A Direct-vision Spectroscope Is Used, And It May Be Either An Ordinary Camera ...

Spectroscope
Spectroscope (fr., Spectroscope ; Ger., Spektroskop) An Instrument Designed For Seeing A Spectrum And Consisting Essentially Of Three Parts—the Slit, The Dispersing Medium, And The Observing Telescope. The Latter Is Essential If It Is Desired To See The Spectrum Uncontaminated By White Light, Though It Is Possible To See A ...

Stand Development
Development, Stand (fr. Developpement Dans Les Cuvettes Verticales ; Ger., Stand Entwickelung) This Term Was Applied By Meydenbauer In To A System Of Developing Plates In Upright Grooved Tanks In Extremely Dilute Developers, Though The System Was First Described By Wratten And Wainwright In 1882. It Is Claimed For This ...

Stereoscope
Stereoscope (fr., Stereoscope; Ger., Stereo Shop) An Optical Instrument For Uniting Into One Image Two Plane Representations As Seen By Each Eye Separately, And Giving To Them The Appearance Of Relief And Solidity. The Subject Of Binocular Vision Was Studied By Various Optical Writers Who Have Flourished Since The Time ...

Stereoscopic Photography
Stereoscopic Photography The Invention Of The Stereoscope Being Prior To The Discovery Of Photography, The First Pictures For This Instrument Consisted Of Line Drawings. With The Advent Of Photography, The Stereoscope Became Increasingly Popular, As This Discovery Provided The Means Of Repro Ducing The Minutest Details Of A Subject Binocu ...

Stereoscopic Projection
Stereoscopic Projection The Projection Of A Pair Of Stereoscopic Pictures In Such A Manner That Each Eye Of The Observer Shall See But One Image, The One Belong Ing To It. In 1841 Dove Showed That If One Of A Pair Of Stereoscopic Pictures Is Outlined In Blue On A ...

Stereoscopic Vision
Stereoscopic Vision A Term Used In Reference To The Power To See Stereoscopic Images Coalesced Without The Aid Of Any Instrument Whatsoever. Briefly, It Consists In Directing The Eyes' Axes To A Remote Plane Whilst Accommodating Their Focus To A Near Plane. As This Operation Involves Strain And Considerable Practice ...

Storing Chemicals
Chemicals, Storing Chemicals Need Careful Storing If They Are To Be Kept Good And In A Proper Working Condition. Those Given Below Are The Chemicals Mostly Used In Photography, And The Remarks Apply Generally To The Chemicals Themselves, As Bought, And Not To Made-up Solutions, As Developers, Intensifiers, Etc., For ...

Studio Design And Construction
Studio Design And Construction The Studio, Or " Glass-house," As It Was Origin Ally Called, Or " Gallery " Or " Operating Room," As It Is More Generally Termed In America, Has, From The First Days Of Photography, Received A Great Amount Of Attention, And Been The Subject Of Much ...

Submarine Photography
Submarine Photography This Is An Application Of Photography Which, Probably On Account Of The Very Special Appar Atus, And The Great Difficulties Encountered, Has Received But Little Attention. Attempts Have Been Made From Time To Time, And With Varying Success, To Photograph The Bottom Of Large Rock Pools And Shallow ...

Substitutes For Platinum Paper
Platinum Paper, Substitutes For Many Attempts Have Been Made To Produce On Bromide And Other Papers Effects Similar To Those Given By Platinotype. A Number Of The Platino-matt Papers May Be Made To Produce Platinum-like Prints, But The Two Can Always Be Distinguished By Applying A Drop Of A Solution ...

Sulphide Toning
Sulphide Toning Bromides.—success Depends On The Use Of A Fresh Developer For Each Print, Full Development, Drying After Fixing And Before Toning, And Thorough Bleaching To A Light Colour. Two Stock Solutions Should Be Prepared, Each Of Which Will Keep Indefinitely. After Bleaching Thoroughly, The Print Must Be Washed ; ...

T Able
T Able I Open-air Subjects Second Clouds . . . . . . . . Boats At Sea, Distant . . . . . Second Boats At Sea, Near . . . . . . Sea Beach, Waves, Etc. . . . . • Landscapes :— Open Common ; Or ...

Telephotography
Telephotography (fr., Tilephotographie) The Photography Of Distant Objects By Means Of Lenses Giving High Magnification Compared With Ordinary Lenses Used With The Same Exten Sion Of The Camera. A Telephoto Lens Is In Fact, A Long-focus Lens Requiring But A Short Camera Extension ; It Has Not A Definite Or ...

Temporary Support
Temporary Support This Is Used In Carbon Printing For The Double Transfer Process ; Known Also As A " Flexible Support." Its Purpose Is To Hold The Carbon Film During Development, Etc., Until Ready For The Second Transfer To The Final Support. The Flexible Temporary Support Is A Paper Coated ...

Testing For Sodium Hyposulphite
Sodium Hyposulphite, Testing For The Water In Which Negatives, Etc., Are Being Washed After Fixing Is Often Tested To Ascertain Whether " Hypo " Is Present ; That Is To Say, Whether The Negatives, Etc., Have Been Washed Long Enough To Remove All The " Hypo." The Best Method Of ...

Theatrical And Kinematograph Photography
Theatrical And Kinematograph Photography Theatrical Photography.—the Usual Plan Of Taking Photographs In A Theatre Is To Employ Flashlight, Elaborate Arrangements And A Large Battery Of Lamps, Combined With The Usual Stage Lights, Being Necessary In Most Cases. The Invention, In 19oi, Of The Griin Fluid Lens, Work Ing At An ...

Theory Of Development
Development, Theory Of The Old Theory Of Development Was That The Reducing Agent Or Developer Reduced The Exposed Silver Bromide Or Latent Image To Metallic Silver, And That The Bromine Combined With The Alkali To Form An Alkaline Bromide, And This Is Usually Expressed By The Following Equation : Agbr ...

Thermo Development
Development, Thermo A Name Invented By Alfred Watkins For A System Of Developing In Which The Duration Of Development Is Varied As The Temperature Of The Developer Varies, To Distinguish It From " Time Development " Pure And Simple. Although It Had Been Known For A Long Time That Develop ...

Three Colour Photography
Three-colour Photography This Particular Branch Of Photography Is, With The Exception Of The Diffraction And Lipp Mann's Processes, Practically The Basis Of All Colour Photography. It Is Based On The Theory That By The Use Of Three Colours Only All The Colours Of Nature Can Be Simulated, Either By The ...

Time Exposures
Time Exposures Exposures Sufficiently Long To Be Given By Hand, The Duration Being Determined By Closing The Lens At Will, As Distinguished From " Instan Taneous " Exposures, Or Those That Must Be Given Automatically By A Mechanical Contrivance. A Time Exposure May Be Of Any Duration From A Quarter ...

Toning Bromide Prints
Toning Bromide Prints There Are Various Methods Of Toning Bromide Prints ; The Most Satisfactory Being Those That Produce Various Shades Of Brown-black And Cold And Warm Brown, Although Red Tones Are Very Suitable For Flower Studies And Portraits Of Children, Etc. Green And Blue Tones Are The Least Desirable. ...

Toning Pop
Toning P.o.p. Of The Two Methods Of Toning And Fixing Prints On Printing-out Silver Papers, One Is To Tone First And Afterwards Fix, And The Other Is To Tone And Fix At One Operation, The Second Method Saving Much Time And Trouble,while Capable Of Producing Quite As Good Results. It ...

Trimming Prints
Trimming Prints Prints Are Trimmed, Or Cut Down, Partly To Get Rid Of Bare Or Rough Edges, And Partly To Cut Away Those Outside Parts Of The Picture That Are Not Required. A Good Method Of Deciding Just How Much Of A Print Should Be Retained Is To Cut Two ...

Ullmanine
Ullmanine A White Water-colour Pigment Much Favoured By Retouchers Of Photographs For Reproduction. It Works Well With The Aerograph, Photographs White, And Does Not Change Colour. Rays (fr., Rayons Ultra Violets ; Ger., Ultraviolette Strahlen) A Region Of The Spectrum Lying Beyond The Visible Violet, The Commencement Of Which Is ...

Uranium Intensifier
Uranium Intensifier An Intensifier Which Gives Great Additional Printing Power To Thin Negatives, The Effect Not Being Permanent. A Simple Formula Is :— Uranium Nitrate . 4o Grs. 9 G. Potass. Ferricyanide . 4o „ 9 ,, Acetic Acid . . 27 Mins. 6 Ccs. Water . . . Ro ...

Uranium Printing
Uranium Printing The First Uranium Printing Processes Were Worked Out By J. C. Burnett (1857-8) And Niepce De Saint Victor, Who Took Out An English Patent In 1858. Paper Was Floated Upon A R In 3o Solution Of Uranium Nitrate, Dried In The Dark, Exposed Under A Negative To Daylight ...

Uranium Toning
Uranium Toning Uranium Toning Is Really A Modified Form Of Intensification, And Is Not Therefore Suitable For Dense Prints. It Is Not Considered To Yield Lasting Results. It Resembles The Process De Scribed Under The Heading " Uranium Intensifier." J. Weir Brown's One-solution Formula Is : Glacial Acetic Acid . ...

Vacuum Filter
Filter, Vacuum A Device By Means Of Which Liquid Is Forced Through A Filtering Medium By Atmospheric Pressure. A Simple Form Of Filter For Viscous Fluids, Such As The Fish-glue Solution Used By Process Workers, Is That Shown At A. A Strong Glass Flask Of About One Litre Capacity Has ...

Ventilation
Ventilation (fr., Ven Tilation Du Laboratoire ; Ger., Dunkel Simmer-ventilation) Adequate Ventilation Of The Developing Chamber Is Essential To Health. Perhaps The Simplest Means Of Securing It Is By The Pro Vision Of Light-traps (which See) At The To And Bottom Of The Door, Or In Any Other Suitable Places. ...

Vertical Camera
Camera, Vertical Cameras Are Used Vertically For The Purpose Of Photographing Ceilings, Floors, Or Articles Laid Upon A Horizontal Surface. Vertical Fittings Are Ordinary Tripod Top, The Camera Being Screwed To The Hinged Portion, Which, In Use, Is Supported Vertically By A Strut, As Shown. The Camera Can Be Pointed ...

View Finder
View Finder (pr., Viseur ; Ger., Bild Sucher, Sucher) An Accessory Showing The Amount Of Subject Included By The Lens Of A Camera. The Com Monest Form A Resembles A Miniature Camera Obscura. A Small Convex Lens I, Throws Upon A Mirror M The Rays Proceeding From Objects In Front ...

View Meter
View Meter (pr., Chercheur, Icononatre Ger., Bildmesser) A Device For Showing The Amount Of Subject Which Would He Included On The Plate If The Camera Were Set Up In A Given Position, Thus Enabling The Operator To Judge The Best Point Of View Without Experimentally Erecting The Appara Tus. One ...

Vignetters And Vignetting
Vignetters And Vignetting A Vignetted Picture Softens Off Gradually Until Whiteness Is Met With At The Edges. Vignetting Is Believed To Have Been Introduced In Photography By Latimer Clark In 1853, And While It Is Invariably Condemned By Artistic Workers, It Is Still Popularly Considered A Pleasing Style Of Finish ...