VANADIUM. A metal discovered in 1830, by Professor Seftstrkim of Fahlun, in iron prepared from the iron ore of Taberg in Sweden. Vanadium has also been found in a lead ore from Wanlock head in Scotland, and in a similar mineral from Zimapan in Mexico. Vanadium is a white brittle metal, very difficult of re duction ; not oxidized by air or water and insoluble in sulphuric, muriatic, and hydrofluoric acids ; but soluble in nitric and nitromuriatic acids, with which it yields solutions of a fine dark blue color. It is not acted upon by boiling caustic potash, nor by the carbonated alkalies at a red heat. 'The peroxide of vanadium is of an orange color, and very slightly soluble in water; it unites with the sail fiable bases ; with the alkalies its salts are soluble, with the other bases sparing ly soluble. These salts are orange or yellow colored ; in these and other res pects there is a close resemblance be tween vanadium and chromium. Perox
ide of vanadium, or vanadie acid, is die. tinguished from chromic acid by the ac tion of deoxidizing substances, which give a blue solution with vanadium, but a green one with chromium. When heated with borax in the reducing flame of the blowpipe, both of the acids yield a green glass ; but in the oxidizing flame the bead becomes yellow if vanadium is present, but the green color is, perma nent if produced by chronium. Accord ing to the experiments of Berzelius, the equivalent of vanadium is about 68; and the protoxide, the deutoxide, and the vanadic acid, are composed respectively If 1 atom of vanadium, and 1, 2, and 8 If oxygen. It exists in the copper of Lake Superior.