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Encyclopedia Americana, Volume 1

1 Advocate
Advocate, (1) Originally One Whose Aid Was Called In Or Invoked; One Who Helped In Any Business Matter; (2) In Law, At First, One Who Gave His Legal Aid In A Case, Without, However, Pleading, This Being The Function Of The Patroxus; (3) The Advocates Fisci, Who At Tended To ...

1 Amortization
Amortization, (1) The Act Of Satis Fying, Liquidating Or Reducing, As A Debt, Usually By A Sinking Fund. The Term Has A Wider Application And Is More Commonly Used Recently In This Sense Than Formerly. It Is Often Applied To Securities In Figuring Their In Vestment Value. For Instance, If ...

1865 1918 American Political Issues
American Political Issues, 1865-1918. Reconstruction.— The Predomi Nating Question That Presented Itself For Settle Ment In The Years Immediately Succeeding The Civil War Was Reconstruction, Or The Conditions Under Which The Seceded States Should Be Re Admitted Into The Union. Reconstruction Was Not Officially Complete Until 1870, When Georgia, The ...

2ethiopica
2ethiopica, °tales Of Ethiopia,' A Greek Romance In 10 Books In Which Is Told The Story Of The Love, Adventures And Final Union Of Chariclea, An Ethiopian Princess, And Thea Genes, A Thessalian Greek. The Author Is A Certain Heliodorus Of Emesa In Syria, Who Lived In The Latter Part ...

4th Earl Of George
Aberdeen, 4th Earl Of (george Ham Ilton Gordon), British Statesman And Premier: B. Edinburgh, 28jan. 1784; Succeeded To Title In 1801; D. London, 14 Dec. 1860. He Was Educated At Harrow And St. John's College, Cambridge. Shortly After Returning From A Continental And Grecian Tour, Full Of Classical Enthusiasm, He ...

Aali Pasha
Aali Pasha, Mehemed A-le' Me-hem-ed' Ft-min', A Turkish Statesman: B. Constantinople 1815; D. 6 Sept. 1871. Ing Public Life At 15, He Was Chargé D'affaires At London 1838, Ambassador To Great Britain 1841-44; Chancellor Of The Divan 1845; Thrice Minister Of Foreign Affairs In The Troublous Years 1846-52; Grand Vizier ...

Aargau
Aargau, Aegliw Fr. Ar Govie, Ar-go-ve), Switzerland, An Extreme N. Canton Between Basel W., Zurich E., Lucerne S., And The Rhine And Baden N. Area 542 Square Miles; Capital, Aarau. It Consists Mainly Of Spurs Of The Alps And Jura, Nowhere Over 3,000 Feet Above Sea-level, With Numerous Fertile Valleys ...

Aaron
Aaron, Ar'un, A Prominent But Subordi Nate Figure Of The Exodus Period In Jewish History, Whose Importance Increases With The Distance Of The Recorder From The Early Epochs, And With The Remodeling Of The Early Histories By The Priesthood To Support Their Later Pre Tensions And Their Theocratic Ideal Of ...

Abacus
Abacus (greek A/34e, From The Semitic Pre, Abq, Dust). In Mathematics, A Term Ap Plied To Several Forms Of Reckoning Apparatus, And Hence For Some Centuries To Arithmetic Itself. The Primitive Form Seems To Have Been A Board Covered With Fine Dust, Whence The Generic Name. Among The Hindus This ...

Abandonment
Abandonment, The Act Of Abandon Ing, Giving Up, Or Relinquishing. In Commerce It Is The Relinquishment Of An Interest Or Claim. Thus, In Certain Circum Stances, A Person Who Has Insured Property On Board A Ship May Relinquish To The Insurers A Remnant Of It Saved From A Wreck, As ...

Abattoir
Abattoir (fr.), Ab-at-war, A Slaughter House; Sometimes Extended To Include A Great Market Of Which The Abattoir Proper Is Only A Part. The Nuisance Of Blood, Offal, Etc., In Crowded Settlements, Early Forced Ancient Civil Ized Governments To Put The Slaughter Of The Animals Under Restrictions. Our First Definite Information ...

Abauzit
Abauzit, Firmin, Ab-6-ze, Fer-maii French Scholar Of Arabian Blood And Protes Tant Parents: B. Uzes, 1679; D. Geneva, 1767. He Lost His Father When Only Two; In 1685, On The Revocation, The Authorities Tried To Him For A Catholic, But His Mother Contrived His Flight With An Elder Brother To ...

Abbas I
Abbas I, Of Persia, Great,* 7th Shah Of The Sufi Dynasty: B. 1557, Acceded 1585: D. 27 Jan. 1628. Sent To Khorasan As Nominal Governor In Childhood, At 18 He Was Pro Claimed Shah By Its Nobles, Smarting Under The Oppression Of His Father Mohammed Khoda Bendeh's Officers; The Father ...

Abbas Pasha Ii
Abbas Pasha Ii, Hilmi, Herme, Third Khedive Of Egypt : B. 14 July 1874, The Eldest Son Of The Khedive Mehemed Tewfik, Better Known As Tewfik Pasha, Was Educated With His Brother At The Theresianum In Vienna. Abbas Hilmi Was Declared To Be Officially Of Age In 1891, And On ...

Abbassides
Abbassides, Abas'sidz, The, 750-1517, Caliphs At Bagdad And Later In Egypt; Nominal Sovereigns Of All Islam, But Losing Spain At The Outset, And Never Practically Obeyed In Africa Outside Egypt; The Most Famous Dynasty Of Saracen Sovereigns. They Took Their Name From Abbas (q.v.), The Uncle Of Mohammed. This Descent ...

Abbe
Abbe, Cleveland, American Meteorol Ogist: B. New York City, 3 Dec. 1838; D. Chevy Chase, Md., 28 Oct. 1916. His Educa Tion Was Received At The New York Free Academy, Now The College Of The City Of New York, Where He Made A Record In Mathematical And Mathematico-physical Science. He ...

Abbot
Abbot, Ezra, American Biblical Scholar: B. Jackson, Me., 28 April 1819; D. 21 March 1884. He Studied At Phillips Exeter Academy, Graduated At Bowdoin 1840, And After Teaching In Maine And Cambridge, Mass., Became In 1856 Assistant Librarian Of Harvard. In 1872 He Received A D.d. From Harvard, Though A ...

Abbot_2
Abbot, George, Archbishop Of Canter Bury: B. Guildford, Surrey, 19 Oct. 1562; D. 5 Aug. 1633. A Cloth-worker's Son, He Studied At Balliol, Oxford, Was Chosen Master Of Uni Versity College 1597, And Three Times Was Vice Chancellor Of Oxford. Dr. Abbot's Name Was Second On The List Of Eight ...

Abbot_3
Abbot Originally The Head And Ruler Of A Community Of Monks; In The Greek Church Hegumenos, Community Or Archimandrite, Uruler Of The Fold,>> Though The Latter Is Oftener An Abbot-general With Hegumenoi Under Him. Among The Dominicans The Head Of A Convent Was Called Prcepositus, A Or Prior; Among The ...

Abbott
, Abbott, Jacob, American Juvenile Writer And Educator: B. Hallowell, Me., 14 Nov. 1803; D. 31 Oct. 1879. He Was Graduated At Bowdoin 1820, Studied At Andover, And Was Ordained A Congregational Minister; Professor Of Mathe Matics And Natural Philosophy At Amherst 1825-29; Then Established The Mt. Vernon Girls' School ...

Abbott_2
Abbott, Lyman, American Clergyman And Editor, Third Son Of Jacob: B. Roxbury, Mass., 18 Dec. 1835. He Was Graduated At The University Of The City Of New York In 1853; Studied Law, And Went Into Partnership With His Brothers Austin And Benjamin In 1856; But Feeling More Inclined To The ...

Abbreviations Or
Abbreviations Or Are Used In Writing To Save Time And Space, Or It May Be To Ensure Secrecy. They Are Of Two Kinds, Consisting Either In The Omission Of Some Letters Or Words, Or In The Substitution Of Some Arbitrary Sign. In The Earliest Times, When Uncial Or Lapidary Characters ...

Abd El Kader Ibn
Abd El Kader Ibn Mouhi Ad Din, Fib'del-kfi'der 'bn' Moohe Ad-den, Noted Arab Chief : B. Near Mascara, 1807; D. Damas Cus, Egypt, 26 May 1883. He Was Educated At Ghetna In An Institution Maintained By The Marabouts. When Only Eight Years Of Age He Went With His Father On ...

Abd Er Rahman I
Abd-er-rahman I, Abd-er-ri'man, Founder Of The Moorish Emirate (later Cali Phate) Of Cordova (q.v.) : B. Damascus, 731; D. 788. He Was A Grandson Of The Ommiad Caliph Hisham, And Having Fled To Africa Es Caped The Frightful Massacre Of His Family (see Om Miads And Abbassides) By Abu 'l-ab ...

Abd Er Rahman Iii
Abd-er-rahman Iii, The Greatest Of The Caliphs Of Cordova, And The First Under Whom The Emirate Assumed The Title Of Cali Phate: B. 891, Acceded 912; D. 961. Measured By What He Found And What He Left, He Must Be Counted Among The Ablest Rulers Of History. The Former Was ...

Abd Ul Azis Han
Abd-ul-azis-han, Ab'clol-a-zez'-han, 32d Sultan Of The Ottoman Turks: B. 9 Feb. 1830; Succeeded His Brother Abd-ul-mcdjid (q.v.), 25 June 1861; D. 4 June 1876. At First He Showed Himself Liberal-minded And Open To Western Ideas, Promising Economy And Reform. But Ere Long He Began To Spend Vast Sums On His ...

Abd Ul Hamid Ii
Abd-ul-hamid Ii, 34th Sultan Of The Ottoman Empire : B. 22 Sept. 1842, Second Son Of Abdul-medjid, Reigned From 1876 To 1909, When He Was Deposed And Made A State Pris Oner For Life. His Uncle, Abdul-aziz, A Prof Ligate Debauchee, Was Dethroned By Midhat Pasha (q.v.) In 1876, And ...

Abdication
Abdication, In Strictness, The Renun Ciation Of Any Office By The Holder Before The Expiration Of Its Term; In Actual Use, Applied Only To Sovereign Rulers, De Jure Or De Facto, Who Resign The Crown In Their Lifetimes. The Motives For This Are As Various As Human Fate, Character, Policy, ...

Abdomen
Abdomen, In Human Anat Omy, That Portion Of The Body Bounded Above By The Diaphragm, Below By The Pelvis, Behind By The Lumbar Vertebra, And In Front By A Thin Layer Of Muscles, The Abdominal Muscles. This Cavity Contains The Chief Organs Of Digestion And The Genitourinary System. By Reason ...

Abduction
Abduction, The Act Of Abducing Or Ab Ducting; A Taking Or Drawing Away, And Spe Cifically An Unlawful Taking. In The United States The Word Abduction Is Ordinarily Applied To The Illegal Seizure And Detention Of A Female For The Purpose Of Concubinage, Prostitution Or Marriage. The Punishment For Abduction ...

Abdul Baha
Abdul Baha, Eldest Son Of Mirza Ali, B. 23 May 1844. He Has Been, Since His Father's Death In 1892, The Spiritual Head Of The Bahai Movement. He Was One Of The Exiles In Aklca, Where He Shared His Father's Trials And Tribula Tions And, In His Later Years, The ...

Abdullahi
Abdullahi. See Khalifa, The. Abd-ool-me-jid', 31st Sultan Of The Ottoman Turks, Son Of Mahmud Ii; B. 23 April Or 6 May 1823 ; Acceded 1 July 1839; D. 25 June 1861. He Received The Usual Enfeebling Harem Education, His Father Failing In His Efforts To Rescue His Children From The ...

Abelard
Abelard, (fr. Abelard, Lir), Pierre, Pe-ir, A Distinguished Philosopher, And Lover Of Heloise. His Real Name Was Pierre De Palais The Other Being A Nickname Spelled In Many Otber Ways, But Originally Bajolardus, Ebacon-licker," From A School Joke, Which He Changed To Habelardus, Ubacon-haver," As A Retort : B. 1079 ...

Aberdeen
Aberdeen, Scotland, The Chief City And Seaport In N. Scotland, Fourth Largest In All Scotland; Lies In Aberdeenshire, Of Which It Is The County Town, Between The Mouths Of The Dee And Don Rivers, Miles Northeast Of Edinburgh By The N. British Railway, Also On The Caledonian N. Scotland Railway. ...

Abernethy
Abernethy, John, Irish Dissenting Clergyman And Pioneer Of Toleration: B. Coler Aine, 19 Oct. 1680; D. 1740. The Son Of A Non Conformist Minister, He Graduated Successively From Glasgow And Edinburgh Universities, Was Licensed To Preach Before Coming Of Age, Urged To Take An Important Charge In Antrim At 21, ...

Abjuration
Abjuration, The Act Of Forswearing, Abjuring Or Renouncing Upon Oath; A Denial Upon Oath; A Renunciation Upon Oath. Chiefly A Law Term And Used In The Following Senses: 1. In The United States When An Alien Wishes To Become A Citizen He Must Declare, Among Other Things, That He Doth ...

Abnormal Psychology
Abnormal Psychology. See Psychology Of The Abnormal. Abo, Yboo, Former Capital And The Oldest City Of Finland, Now The Chief Town Of The Government Of Abo-bjorneborg. It Is Situated On The Aurayoki River And Near The Gulf Of Bothnia, 128 Miles In A Westerly Direction From Helsingfors. It Was Founded ...

Abolitionists
Abolitionists, The Extreme Section Of The Anti-slavery Party In The United States, Who Advocated Immediate Sweeping Away By The National Government Of Southern Slavery, Without Regard To Constitutional Guarantees, Vested Interests, Or Political Facts; This Section And Its Nickname Date From About 1835. Grad Ual Abolition Had Been The Desire ...

Aboriginal Art
Aboriginal Art. Strictly Speaking, The Art Of The Aborigines, That Is, Of The Original Inhabitants Of Any Region; And Hence By Exten Sion, Any Primitive Or Savage Art Unaffected By The Contact Of A Foreign And Superior Culture. In This Sense The Term Is Used Without Regard To The Question ...

Abortion
Abortion, The Expulsion Of A Foetus From The Uterus Before It Is Capable Of Carrying On Its Own Life. A Variety Of Different Terms Have Been Applied To Indicate Variations In The Character Of This Process; Thus: Accidental, When Brought About By Purely Accidental Means; Artificial Or Induced, When Caused ...

Abraham Or Abram
Abraham Or Abram, The Progenitor Of The Hebrews And The Arab Bedouin. After Deriving His Genealogy Through Shem To His Father Terah And His Brothers Nahor And Ha Ran, The Narrative In Gen. Xi-xxv Proceeds As Follows,— Each Step In The Pilgrimage Being By Express Direction Of Yahwe., To His ...

Abruzzi
Abruzzi, Duke Of The, Prince Luigi Amadeo Giuseppe Maria Ferdinando Fran Cesco, Italian Admiral, Mountaineer And Arctic Explorer: B. Madrid, 29 Jan. 1873. He Is The Third Son Of The Late Prince Amadeo, Duke Of Aosta, And A First Cousin Of King Victor Em Manuel Iii. His Two Elder Brothers, ...

Absenteeism
Absenteeism, A Term Applied To The Owners Of Estates In A Country Who Habitually Absent Themselves From That Country And Spend The Income Of Their Estates In It In Another; In Current Use, Referring Almost Wholly To The Irish Nobility Whose Fixed Residence Is Outside Of Ireland. Much Of The ...

Absolom And Achitophel
Absolom And Achitophel. Dry Den's 'absolom And Achitophel,' Perhaps The Greatest Verse-satire In English, Was The Direct Outgrowth Of Political Conditions. The Popish Plot Of 1678-79, Followed By The Rebellion Of Monmouth, Illegitimate Son Of Charles Ii, Against His Father, Had Disorganized The King Dom; And The Exclusion Bill, Which ...

Absolute
Absolute, Opposed To Relative; Means That The Thing Is Considered In Itself And With Out Reference To Other Things. In Logic.—(1) Absolute Or Non-connotative, According To Whately, Is Opposed To Attributive Or Connotative. The Former Does Not Take Note Of An Attribute Connected With The Object, Which The Latter Does. ...

Absolution
Absolution, In Ecclesiastical Usage, The Freeing From Sin Or Its Penalties. In The Cath Olic Church Absolution Has Two Important And Distinctive Bearings: (1) Absolution From Sin; (2) Absolution From Censures. The First Is Defined As The Remission Of Sin, And Can Only Be Given By A Duly Ordained Priest ...

Absolutism
Absolutism. A Term Used In Political Science To Denote That System Of Government Wherein The Supreme Power Is Vested In A Single Authority — Individual Or Collective Unchecked By Any Constitution Or Laws. Since Absolute Power May Be Exercised Under A Mon Archy, An Aristocracy Or Even A Democracy, The ...

Absorption
Absorption, In Chemistry, Absorption Is The Taking Up Of A Gas By A Liquid Or By A Porous Solid; And In Natural Philosophy It Is The Taking Up Of Rays Of Light And Heat By Certain Bodies Through Which They Are Passing. Absorp Tion Of Light Is The Retention Of ...

Absyrtus
Absyr'tus. See Argonauts. Abt, Apt, Franz, German Song-writer And Conductor: B. Wiesbaden, 22 Dec. 1819; D. 31 March 1885. He Studied Theology At Leipzig, But Abandoned It For Music At Mendelssohn S Instance. In 1841 He Became Kapellmeister At The Court Theatre At Bernburg; Shortly Afterward Relinquishing The Post For ...

Abu Klea Abuklea Wells
Abu Klea (abuklea Wells), A' Place In The Eastern Sudan, West Of The Nile, On The Desert Route From Korti To Metammeh, 23 Miles North Northwest Of The Latter And About 120 Miles From Khartum. Here A Battle Was Fought 17 Jan. 1885 Between A British Force Of 1,500 Under ...

Abysmal Deposits
Abysmal Deposits Are Accumula Tions At The Bottom Of The Ocean At Great Depths Known As Abysmal Depths. They Con Sist Chiefly Of Red And Gray Clays And Oozes Or Combinations Of Clays With Various Shells And Animals, Such As Dictonis, Foraminifera And Radiolarians. These Deposits Constitute The Larger Part ...

Abyssinia
Abyssinia (officially Ethiopia), An Ancient Kingdom Of East Africa, Now Under A Monarch Who Claims The Title Of Empress. Pop. Some 8,000,000. Abyssinia May Be Said To Ex Tend Between Lat. 5° And 15° N., And Long. And 43° E. It Is Bounded On The North By The Italian Colony ...

Academic Degrees
Academic Degrees. Academic De Grees, Whether Earned Or Honorary, Are Titles Conferred By Colleges, Universities And Pro Fessional Schools Upon Persons Who, In The Opinion Of The Authorities Of These Institutions, Have Exhibited Special Proficiency In Any Branch Of Knowledge. (see Degree). The Difference Between Earned And Honorary Degrees Is ...

Academies In America
Academies In America. In The United States The Term Academy Is Not Generally Applied, As In Europe, To Learned Societies. The Oldest Association Of The Academic Type In The United States Originated With Benjamin Franklin, Who Published (a Proposal For Pro Moting Useful Knowledge Among The British Plantations In America ...

Academy 1
Academy. (1) A School; (2) A Society Of Higher Learning. In Modern Days The Word Is Used To Designate British And Americas Schools Of Higher Instruction For Youths, Rank Ing With The Gymnasia Of Germany, And Also National Military And Naval High Schools. The Name Is Also Applied To Various ...

Academy Of Arts And
Academy Of Arts And Letters, An American Institution Founded In 1898 The American Social Science Association. At Its Annual Meeting That Year The Association Elected A Select Group Of American Authors And Artists, Who Should Constitute A National Institute Of Arts And Letters. Membership Was To Be Based On Distinguished ...

Academy Of Fine Arts
Academy Of Fine Arts, Im Perial Russian, Was First Established In A Primitive Form By The Great Emperor Peter I, Who, Realizing The Civilizing Power Of Such Institutions, Invited To St. Petersburg Notable Artists In All Branches For The Purpose Of Train Ing Young Russian Aspirants In The Arts, Or ...

Academy Of Science
Academy Of Science, Imperial Russian. Animated By A Desire To Develop Russian Science To The Degree Of Complete Individuality And Independence, The Great Re Former Emperor Peter I United All The Most Learned Men And Scientific Researchers Into One Group Which He Called Akademiya Nauk (i. E., Academy Of Sciences), ...

Acanthus In Art
Acanthus In Art. There Are Several Varieties Of The Acanthus Plant. The Two Which Find Expression In Art Are The Acanthus Spinosus And Acanthus Mollis, The Former Having Leaves Of Sharply Pointed Indentation, The Latter Having Wider, Blunter Points. Of All The Art Motifs Taken From Plant Life The Acanthus ...

Acceleration
Acceleration, The Rate Of Change Of The Velocity Of A Body. If The Velocity Of The Body Is Constant, Its Acceleration Is Said To Be Zero. If The Velocity Increases Uniformly, So That At The End Of Every Second It Is Greater Than It Was At The End Of A ...

Accent
Accent, The Stress Or Emphasis Given By The Voice To A Certain Syllable Or Syllables Of A Word, Or To Certain Notes In A Bar Of Music; Also, The Peculiar Intonation Of One Spoken Lan Guage When Compared With Another; Further, Marks Used In Printing Or Writing To Show The ...

Accessory
Accessory, In Law, One Who Is Not The Thief Actor In An Offense Or Present At Its Com Mission, But Still Is Connected With It In Some Other Way. Accessories May Become So Before The Fact Or After The Fact. Sir Matthew Hale Defines An Accessory Before The Fact As ...

Accident
Accident, An Unforeseen Occurrence, Particularly If It Be Of A Calamitous Character. This Is The Most Common Use Of The Word. In Logic: (d) Whatever Does Not Really Con Stitute An Essential Part Of A Person Or Thing; As The Clothes One Wears, The Saddle On A Horse, Etc. (b) ...

Accident Insurance
Accident Insurance. A Policy Of Accident Insurance Is A Contract Providing In Demnity For Loss Of Life, Limb, Sight Or Time, Be Cause Of Bodily Injuries, Effected Solely And Independently Of All Other Causes, Through Ex Ternal, Violent And Accidental Means. The Full Principal Sum Of The Policy Is Payable ...

Accidents
Accidents, Causes And Preventiort Of. Industrial Accidents.— For Many Years Mod Ern Industry, Especially In The United States, Has Been Confronted With The Serious Problem Of Preventing Injuries, Whether Avoidable Or Unavoidable. The Avoidable Injuries Are Due To The Carelessness Of The Victim, The Employer Or A Fellow Employee, While ...

Acclamation
Acclamation. To"): Prop Erly, Expressing Any Judgment Of An Assembly Or A Large Part Of It By Shouting: But In Usage Restricted Entirely To A Favorable One. The Choice Of Rulers Among Most Early Aryan Tribes Or Nations Was By Acclamation: The Candidate Was Presented By A Previous Understanding— Among ...

Acclimatization
Acclimatization, The Gradual Al Teration Which Fits A Plant Or Animal To A Climate Differing From That In Which The Habits Of Its Species Or Race Have Been Formed. Ac Climatization And Naturalization Are Often Mis Takenly Used As Synonymous, But Naturalization Properly Means Establishment In A New Country, And, ...

Accommodation
Accommodation, The Process By Which The Mind Is Brought Into Adjustment With Its Surroundings; Adaptation. In Physiology, The Accommodation Of The Eye Is The Function By Which Objects, Near Or Distant, May Be Seen Distinctly. It Is Accomplished By The Relaxing Or Contracting Of The Ciliary Mus Cle. See Eye. ...

Accounting
Accounting. It Is Difficult To Dis Tinguish Between Bookkeeping And Accounting. In Attempts To Do So Bookkeeping Is Called The Art Of Recording Business Transactions And Ac Counting The Science. Bookkeeping Gives The History Of The Business In A Systematic Manner, While Accounting Classifies, Analyzes And Then Interprets The Facts ...

Accoutrements
Accoutrements, 4k-kowter-mentz, Military Equipment Carried On The Person Of The Soldier Or His Horse, Inparticular Such As Is Used To Bear His Arms And Ammunition. In The United States Army The Pattern Of The Infantry Equipment Was Selected By A Special Board Of Officers In 1910; That Of The Cavalry ...

Accuracy Of
Accuracy Of The Firing For Accuracy, Whether With Artillery Or Small-arms, Involves Two Entirely Separate And Distinct Con Ditions: (1) The Determination Of The Personal Skill Of The Individual Using The Weapon; (2) The Determination Of The Qualities As Regards Accuracy Of The Weapon Itself. The Most Com Mon Way ...

Acetic Acid
Acetic Acid, An Organic Acid Belong Ing In The Fatty Series, And Resulting From The Oxidation Of Alcohol. It Is Important On Ac Count Both Of Its Extensive Use In The Arts, And Of Its Properties As Viewed From The Standpoint Of The Theoretical Chemist. Its Formula Is Chs.cooh, Or ...

Achaia
Achaia, Ak-vya, Or Achiea Ak-ea, According To }comer, Southeastern The Where Was Phthia, The Home Of Achilles. In Later History, A Strip Of Peloponnesus Along The Southern Shore Of The Corinthian Gulf, Rising From The Coast To Wooded Hills Abounding In Beasts Of The Chase; The Uplands Were Fertile With ...

Acheen Achin
Achin, Acheen, Or Atcheen, A-chen' (properly Acheh, Portuguese Corruption Achem, Dutch Atjeh Or Ajeh), A District At The Northwest Extremity Of Sumatra, Till 1873 An In Dependent Sultanate, Now A Province Of Dutch Indies: Area, 20,471 Square Miles; Pop. (1912) 789,664 (but A True Census Must Be Impossible). The Surface ...

Acheson
Acheson, Edward Goodrich, American Inventor: B. Washington, Pa., 9 March 1856. At 18 He Was Engaged With A Civil Engineering Corps, Opening Mines And Laying Railroads In The Vicinity Of Reynoldsville, Pa. Upon The Termination Of His Work In Railroad Construction He Designed A Small Dynamo, And After Meeting Many ...

Achilles
Achilles, A-kirez, One Of The Heroes Of Greek Mythology, And In Particular The Hero Of Homer's Iliad. According To The Latter He Was The Son Of Peleus, King Of The Myrmidons In Phthiotis, A District Of Thessaly, And Of The Nereid Or Sea-goddess Thetis, And The Grandson Of 2eacus; Hence ...

Achromatism
Achro'matism. Because The Several Components Of A Beam Of Ordinary Light Are Of Different Refrangibilities, It Follows That They Are Not Brought To A Common Focus By A Simple Convex Lens. The Violet Rays Meet At A Point Nearer The Lens Than That At Which The Red Rays Unite, And ...

Acid Industry
Acid Industry, The The Manufac Ture Of Chemicals In The United States Began With That Of Sulphuric Acid. The Indispensable Part That This Acid Plays In All Branches Of Man Ufacturing Created An Insistent Demand That Could Not Be Net By Importation. From Those Early Days Onward The Manufacture Of ...

Acids
Acids. In Popular Language, Acids Are Substances Of A Corrosive Nature, With A Sour Taste When Diluted Sufficiently To Lose Their Cor Rosive Action On The Tongue, Capable Of Turning Certain Blue Vegetable Coloring Matters, Such As Litmus, To A Red, Dissolving Metals And Forming Neutral Compounds With Alkalies. They ...

Acne
Acne, Ik'ne. Among The Diseases Of The Skin There Is None Which Is More Annoying Than This, Particularly Because Of Its Frequent Loca Tion Upon And Disfigurement Of The Face And Because Of Its Common Occurrence In Young People Of Both Sexes With Whom Disfigurements Of This Character Are Keenly ...

Acoma
Acoma, I-kema, N. Mex. (the Old Span Ish Acufia Or Acuco), In Valencia County, 60 Miles Southwest Of Albuquerque And 15 Miles Southwest Of Lagun. It Is An Indian Pueblo Of 830 People, Famed Especially For Its Original Site, The "enchanted Mesa,x' A Rock Table 430 Feet High, Accessible Now ...

Aconite
Aconite (aconitum), A Genus Of Hardy Herbaceous Plants Of The Natural Order Ranun Culacea, Long Known For Their Poisonous Prop Erties. Many Of Them Are Of Great Beauty And Several Are Cultivated, Especially The Common Wolf's-bane Or Monk's-hood (a. Napellus), So Called From The Form Of Its Flowers, Character Istic ...

Acoustics
Acoustics, I-koo'sfiks, (from To Hear), Is The Science Of The Production, Propa Gation And Audition Of Sound. The Term Sound Is Sometimes By Definition Restricted To The Sen Sation Involved In Hearing, But Is Never Consist Ently So Used. Both By Derivation And By Com Mon And Best Usage It ...