ADELAIDE, capital of South Australia on the river Torrens, seven miles by rail southeast of Port Adelaide, on St. Vincent Gulf, and 506 miles northwest of Melbourne. It stands on a large plain, and is walled in on the eastern and southern sides by the Mount Lofty range; the town proper is enclosed by a wide belt of park lands, laid out in terraces, making it one of the most beautiful cities of Aus tralia. It was first surveyed and staked off by Col. William Light in 1837, and named after the queen of William IV. The Torrens divides the town into North and South Ade laide, the former being occupied chiefly with residences and the latter forming the business portion of the town. Four substantial iron bridges span the Torrens, which has been formed by a dam into a lake one and one-half miles long. The streets are broad and regu larly laid out, especially in Adelaide proper, to the south of the river, where they cross each other at right angles, and are planted with trees. Among the public buildings are the new Parliament Houses, erected at a cost of about $500,000; the government offices, post-office and town hall; South Australian In stitute, with museum, library and art galleries; and hospital. There are a number of fine churches, including the Anglican Cathedral of St. Peter. The botanical garden covers more than 40 acres of ground, and many other beau tiful parks and squares embellish the city. The chief manufactures are woolen, leather, iron and earthenware goods, and there are flour mines and metallurgic works; but the chief importance of Adelaide depends on its being the great emporium for South Aus tralia. The city controls the trade of the large back country and rich mining districts, which have a population of 200,000 within a radius of 10 miles from the town hall. Wool,
wine, wheat, flour, copper, silver, lead, ores and concentrates, skins, butter, tallow and leather are the staple articles of export. The value of total exports in 1913 was $49,048,815; of imports, $36,741,700. Among the educational institutions the most important is the Ade laide University, with a working capital of $894,850, including a conservatory of music, schools of engineering, science and commerce. It was opened in 1876 and has about 1,000 pupils, and 25,000 volumes in its library. Other institutions include a school of mines and in dustries, the largest in Australia; St. Peter's Episcopal College; St. Barnabas Theological College, opened in 1:4:1, and Prince Alfred (Wesleyan) College. It is the seat of an Anglican and of a Roman Catholic bishop. Adelaide, incorporated in 1840, is the oldest and third largest municipality in Australasia. The government is vested in a mayor elected annually, six aldermen elected for three years, two auditors and two councillors. Adelaide has been very successful in carrying on mu nicipal enterprises. It is required that all the meat furnished to the population of over 200,000 must be slaughtered in the municipal abattoirs. The Municipal Tramway Trust op erates the city and suburban electric lines, and the Municipal Harbor Trust conducts the business of the port. The city also carries on the usual public utilities — water supply, light ing, etc. Area, including parks, 3,700 acres. Pop. (1917), city proper, 43,438; metropolitan area, 205,443.