Home >> Encyclopedia Americana, Volume 1 >> Acre to Afanasiev

Encyclopedia Americana, Volume 1

Acre
Acre, Aler, Syria (biblical Accho, Greek Ptolemais, Other Forms Acco, Akka, Aeon, Accaron; Modern French St. Jean D'acre), A Port Some Miles North Of Mt. Carmel, On The Bay Of Acre, Opposite Haifa On The Opposite Horn. The Harbor Is One Of The Best On The Coast; Even So, It ...

Acropolis
Acropolis, The High Part Of Any An Cient Greek City; Usually An Eminence Over Looking The City And Frequently Its Citadel. Notable Among Such Citadels Were The Acropo Leis Of Argos, Of Messene, Of Thebes And Of Corinth; But Pre-eminently The Acropolis Of Athens, To Which The Name Is Now ...

Acrostic
Acrostic, A Poetical Composition, Dis Posed In Such A Manner That The Initial Letters Of Each Line, Taken In Order, Form A Person's Name Or Other Complete Word Or Words. This Kind Of Poetical Trifling Was Very Popular With The French Poets From The Time Of Francis I Until Louis ...

Acroterion
Ac'rote'rion ("extremity"), In Archi Tecture, An Ornament — Statue, Palmette, Or Leaf-decoration — Placed On The Apex Of A Pedi Ment Or One Of Its Lower Angles. Act. In The Drama, One Of The Parts Into Which A Play Is Divided, To Mark Change Of Time Or Place, To Give ...

Actinometer
Actinom'eter, An Instrument For Measuring The Intensity Of The Chemical Action Of The Sun's Rays. For Use In Photography For The Judging Of Times Of Exposure, The Essential Part Of The Instrument Is A Strip Of Sensitive Silver Paper Which Is Blackened By The Sun's Rays, The Time Required To ...

Actinomycosis
Actinomyco'sis, A Disease Due To A Vegetable Parasite Known As The Ray Fungus, Actinomtces Bovis, Of The Fungus Class. This Fungus Lives Its Life In Grasses And Plants And Thus Infects Cattle, In Which Animals It Is Com Paratively Frequent, Causing The Disease Known As Abig Jaw,* Or Clumpy Jaw.* ...

Action
Action. In Law, The Formal Demand Of One's Right From Another Person, Made And In Sisted In A Court Of Justice Which Has Jurisdic Tion Of The Person And The Subject-matter Of Litigation. In A Quite Common Sense, Action Includes All The Formal Proceedings In A Court Of Justice Attendant ...

Actium
Actium, Ak'shium, Greece, Now Akri, A Promontory On The West Coast Out From The Northwest Extremity Of Acarnarna, On The Ionian Sea At The Entrance Of The Gulf Of Arta (old Ambricia), Opposite Prevesa And Just North Of Santa Maura (old Leucadia). Forts Punta And Aktium Defend It. It Represents ...

Acts Of Congress
Acts Of Congress. The Two Branches Of Congress Are Co-ordinate In Legis Lative Power, The Bills Passed By Either Being Subject To The Absolute Veto Of The Other. The Only Exclusive Power Possessed By Either House Was The Provision That All Bills For Raising Rev Enue Should Originate In The ...

Acts Of Parliament
Acts Of Parliament. An Act Of Parliament Is A Resolution Or Law Or Declara Tion Passed By All Three Branches Of The British Legislature (the King Or Queen, Lords And Com Mons) To Enforce Certain Or Specified Rules Of Conduct Or Defining And Conferring Rights Upon Persons Or Withholding Them ...

Acts Of Trade
Acts Of Trade, A Series Of Acts To Regulate Trade Passed By The British Parlia Ment Between 1660 And 1674. These Acts Levied Heavy Duties In England On Agricultural Prod Ucts And Salt Provisions Imported From The Col Onies. The Intent Was To Protect The British Landlord, But The Actual ...

Acts Of The Apostles
Acts Of The Apostles. One Of The Books Of The New Testament. The Title, Acts Of The Apostles (simply Acts In The Old Codex Sinaiticus), Was Not Bestowed By The Author, And Does Not Correspond To The Con Tents Of The Work. The Book Seeks To Describe A Great Historical ...

Actuarial Society Of Ameri
Actuarial Society Of Ameri Ca, A Scientific Organization Established In April 1889, Having For Its Object The Promo Tion Of Actuarial Science By Such Methods As May Be Found Desirable. The Membership Is Composed Of Those Connected With Actuarial Pur Suits. The Enrolment Is Divided Into Fellows And Associates. Candidates ...

Adalia
Adalia, A-di'lea, Turkey In Asia, A Sea Port On The South Coast, In The Vilayet Of Konieh, Finely Situated On The Gulf Of Adalia, From Which The Houses Rise In Terraces Like An Amphi Theatre, On A Rocky Hill And Surrounded By Fig, Orange And Mulberry Gardens. It Lies In ...

Adam
Adam, Book Of, Works Dealing With Adam And Eve And The Story Of The Creation. One Of The Earliest Of These, Supposed To Have Been Called (the Life Of Adam And Eve,' And Of Hebrew Origin, Was Published In Greek By Tischendotf In Apocrypha:' (1866) Under The Misleading Title Of ...

Adam Bede
Adam Bede, The First Long Novel Of George Eliot (mary Ann Evans), Was Pub Lished. In 1859. The Action Takes Place In The English Village Of Hayslope, Where The Hero, Adam, A Simple Workman Of Sterling Worth, Pursues His Trade Of Carpentry. Very Different From Adam Is His Brother, Seth, ...

Adam Homo
Adam Homo, A Poem By Frederik Palu Dan-mfiller, And His Most Important Work, Ap Peared During The Years 1841-48. It Is Of Par Ticular Significance In Danish Literature, As It Marks The End Of Romanticism In Denmark. In Oehlenschlaeger's 'aladdin' Which Introduces The Period Of Romanticism, Imagination Is Given Full ...

Adams
Adams, Charles Francis, American States Man, Son Of President John Quincy Adams: B. In Boston, 18 Aug. 1807; .d. There 21 Nov. 1886. At The Age Of Two He Was Taken By His Father To Saint Petersburg; In 1815 Went With His Mother Thence To Paris; The Same Year His ...

Adams
Adams, John, American Statesman, 2d President Of The United States: B. Braintree, Mass., Of A Line Of Farmers, 19 Oct. 1735; D. 4 July 1826, The Year After His Son Was Inau Gurated President. Graduated At Harvard, He Taught School, And Read Theology For A Church Career; But Seeing His ...

Adams Family
Adams Family, Of Massachusetts. In The Varied Abilities And Conspicuous Public Im Portance Of Its Members, This Family Confessedly Outranks Every Other In The United States. It Has Furnished In A Single Line Two Presidents, Both Of Great Weight And Permanent Import Ance, And Even More Interesting As Virile And ...

Adams_2
Adams, Herbert, American Sculptor: B. West Concord, Vt., 28 Jan. 1856. After Early Studies At The Institute Of Technology, Wor Cester, Mass., And At The Normal Art School, Boston, He Proceeded To Paris, And Became A Pupil Of Antonin Mercier, 1885 To 1890. From 1890-98 He Was Instructor In The ...

Adams_3
Adams, Samuel, American Patriot: B. Boston, 27 Sept. 1722; D. 2 Oct. 1803. He Was Son Of A Rich Merchant, Ship-owner And Magis Trate, A Leader In Provincial Contests With Royal Governors, And Inventor Of The Caucus In Fact And Perhaps Unintentionally In Name. Edu Cated At The Boston Latin ...

Adamson
Adamson, Patrick, Scottish Prelate (real Name Was Spelled Constyne, Constean, Conston, Constant, And Constans; Later Changed To Con Stantine, Then To Adamson) : B. Perth, 15 March 1536; D. 19 Feb. 1592. He Took His Degree At St. Andrews, And In 1566 Went To Pans As Tutor. Here He Wrote ...

Adaptation
Adaptation, The Power Andprocess Of Gradual Change In An Organism To Fit It To Its Environment. See Biology I Evolution. Life Came To Be, It Is Inferred, When The Gradually Accumulated Energy Which Resulting In Physical And Chemical Forces Forced A Bet Ter Medium For Its Interchange, Which Science, To-day, ...

Addicks
Addicks, John Edward, American Capi Talist: B. Philadelphia, 21 Nov. 1841. He Ac Quired A Large Fortune As A Gas Manufacturer, Organizing And Becoming President Of The Bay State Gas Company Of Boston In 1884, And Buy Ing Control Of The Brooklyn (n. Y.) Gas Company In 1892. For 11 ...

Addison
Addison, Joseph, English Essayist: B. Milston, Near Amesbury, In Wiltshire, 1 May 1672; D. Holland House, London, 17 June 1719. Addison Was The Eldest Son Of The Rev. Launce Lot Addison, A Royalist Clergyman, Who, After The Restoration, Had Been Chaplain Of The Gar Risons At Dunkirk And Tangier, And ...

Address
Address, The, In British Parliamen Tary Procedure, Is The Answer To The King's Speech (q.v.) Moved In Both Houses. In Former Times It Was Composed Of An Answer To Each Paragraph In The Speech, But It Now Forms A Single Resolution Expressing The Thanks Of The House To The Sovereign ...

Adelaide
Adelaide, Capital Of South Australia On The River Torrens, Seven Miles By Rail Southeast Of Port Adelaide, On St. Vincent Gulf, And 506 Miles Northwest Of Melbourne. It Stands On A Large Plain, And Is Walled In On The Eastern And Southern Sides By The Mount Lofty Range; The Town ...

Adenoids
Adenoids, A Term Applied To An Ex Cessive Growth Of Spongy Tissue Lying Back Of And Above The Soft Palate. The Growth May Begin In Early Infancy, And If Not Removed May Continue Until The Age Of Puberty. In The First Stages The Tissue Is Soft And Apt To Bleed ...

Adhesion
Adhesion, In Physics, The Force Which Holds Together Two Surfaces Brought In Con Tact; Distinguished From Cohesion, The Mutual Attraction Exerted By Particles Of The Same Body, And From Affinity, Since The Particles Ad Hering Remain Unchanged. It Is A Force Ex Erted On Each Other By The Molecules Of ...

Adirondack Mountains
Adirondack Mountains, A Group In The Northeastern Part Of New York State, Lying Between The Depressions Occupied By Lake Champlain On The East, The St. Lawrence On The Northwest And The Mohawk River On The South. Tite Group Is Sometimes Included In The Appalachian System, But Physically And Geologically The ...

Adis Ababa
Adis Ababa, A-ba'ba, Abyssinia, Capital Of The Kingdom And Of The Province Of Shoa, Is Situated 9,000 Feet Above Sea-level On The Southern Slope Of The Entotto Hills. It Con Sists Of Groups Of Villages And Suburbs Scat Tered Around The Gebi Or Royal Palace And Enclosure Placed On A ...

Adjutant
Adjutant, A Large Stork (leptoptilus Argala) Found In India And Southeastern Asia, And So Called By The English On Account Of Its Erect, Officer-like Appearance. Its Hindu Name Is Uargala.° Its Height Is About Five Feet, Its Spread Of Wings About 14 Feet. The Back And Wings Are Slate-colored, The ...

Administration
Administration, In General, The Management Of Any Business; Especially Ex Ecutive Government. In Public Affairs It Refers To The Actions Of The Government In Exercising Its Authority Agreeable To The Constitution Of The Nation. The Word Is Applied More Com Monly To The Collective Body Of Governmental Officers Exercising Authority ...

Admiral
Admiral (arabic Amir-al Or Emir-al, °commander Of The"— Whatever Follows It), The Highest Rank Of Naval Officer; The Title Of The General Officer Who Commands A Fleet Or A Subdivision Of A Fleet. As A Naval Term The Word Appears To Have Been Used First By The Sicilians And Then ...

Admiralty
Admiralty, The. In Great Britain, The Governmental Department Which Manages All Matters Pertaining To The British Navy And The Royal Marine. The Admirality Derives Its Character From The Fact That It Represents The Lord High Admiral, Whose Administrative Func Tions Have Been Transferred To And Vested In A Board Of ...

Admiralty And Maritime Ju
Admiralty And Maritime Ju Risdiction. The System Of Law And Pro Cedure Under Which Maritime Transactions Are Regulated. It Derives Its Name From The Fact That It Was Originally Administered In England By The Lord High Admiral. The Modern Laws Have Been Adopted From The Civil Law And From Such ...

Admission
Admission. In Practice, The Act By Which Attorneys And Counsellors Become Recog Nized As Officers Of The Court And Are Allowed To Practise. In Corporations Or Companies, The Act Of A Corporation Or Company By Which An Individual Acquires The Right Of A Member Of Such Cor Poration Or Company. ...

Adolescence
Adolescence (latin, Adolescere, To Grow Up) Is The Period Of -life Between The Ad Vent Of Puberty And Maturity. Puberty, Or The Period When An Individual First Becomes Capable Of Begetting Or Of Bearing Children, Occurs Approximately In The 12th Or 13th Year For Girls And The 14th Year For ...

Adonais
Adonais, Perhaps The Most Widely Read Of Shelley's Longer Poems, Is Together With Milton's (lycidas) The Most Highly Wrought And Finished Of English Elegies. Composed On The Death Of Keats, It Has Gained Further Pathos And Interest From The Fact That, As Mrs. Shelley Pointed Out, "it Now Seems More ...

Adonis
Adonis, A-do'nis, In Greek Legend, Son Of Myrrha, Daughter Of Cinyras King Of Cy Prus: Born In Arabia. Before The Birth Of Her Son She Was Transformed Into The Tree Which Produces The Fragrant Gum Called By Her Name; This, However, Did Not Hinder His Being Brought Into The World ...

Adoption
Adoption, The Act Of Taking A Stranger Into One's Family, As A Son Or Daughter; Or The Taking Of A Person, A Society, Etc., Into More Intimate Relations Than Formerly Existed With Another Person Or Society; Or The Taking As One's Own, With Or Without Acknowledgment, An Opin Ion, Plan, ...

Adoration
Adoration, In Unspecialized Modern Usage, A Spiritual Homage To God; But Originally An Act To Express Obedience And Reverence Per Formed Before The Images Of The Gods. Among The Romans It Was Performed By Raising The Hand To The Mouth, Kissing It, And Then Waving It In The Direction Of ...

Adrenals
Adrenals, Also Known As Suprarenal Glands. Paired Structures, Which In The Human Animal Are Located In The Kidney Fat Just Above The Kidney. They Have No Physiological Rela Tion With That Organ. They Are A Vital Neces Sity To Life And Removal Of The Glands By Acci Dent, Experiment Or ...

Adrian
Adrian, Mich., City And County-seat Of Lenawee County; On The Raisin River, And On The N. Y. C., The Wabash And The Detroit, T. And I. Railroads, 33 Miles West Of Toledo, Ohio, And 60 Miles Southwest Of Detroit It Is Situ Ated In The Midst Of A Prosperous Agricultural ...

Adrianople
Adrianople ("hadrian's City”, Tur Key: Its Third City In Size, Next After Constan Tinople And Salonica; 137 Miles West Northwest Of Constantinople, Connected By Rail; Near The Western End Of The Great Thracian Coast-plain Where It Rises To The Rhodope Mountains; At The Confluence Of The Large Martiza (ancient Hebrus) ...

Adsorption
Adsorption (a Variation Of The Word °absorption"). The Condensation Of A Gas Or Vapor Upon The Surface Of A Solid. The Fact That Solid Bodies Are Capable Of Condensing Upon Their Surfaces Air Films Or Gas Films Of. Considerable Density Was Probably First Forced Upon The Attention Of The Physicist ...

Adulteration
Adulteration (°making Wise), In Its Legal Sense The Deceiving Of Buy Ers Of Goods As To Their Quality By Secretly Add Ing Or Taking Away Basic Constituents. The Element Of Deception Must Be Present; Openly Selling Any Mixture, However Poor, Is Not Adul Teration Legally Or Morally. In Current Usage ...

Advance Guards
Advance Guards. The Principal De Tachment Insuring Security For The Command In The Field, Which Covers The Head And Flanks Of A Column Or Army Advancing In The Direction Of The Enemy. For A Large Force The Advance Guard Is Necessarily Composed Of Troops Of All Arms; Its Strength Being ...

Advanced Posts
Advanced Posts. Positions Taken Up By A Force In Advance Of The Main Body Of An Army, And In Such A Situation That They Shall Be Within Easy Communication Of It And Of One Another. The Duties Of The Advanced Posts Are The Same Whether The Troops Are Stationary Or ...

Adventists
Adventists. Bodies Of Believers Who Take Their Name From Their Belief As To The Second Coming Of Christ. They Came Out Of The Movement Begun By William Miller, A Bap Tist Of New England, Who, After A Long Study Of The Scriptures, Especially Of The Prophecies, Reached The Conclusion That ...

Adventures Of Baron Munch
Adventures Of Baron Munch Ausen, The. Munchausen's Adventures Are A By-word Among Travelers' Tales For Extravagant, Methodical Lying. They Owe Their Name And First Inspiration To Hieronymus Karl Friedrich, Baron Mfinchhausen (1720-97), Of Bodenwerder, Near Hanover, Germany, Who Had Served In The Russian Cavalry Against The Turks (1737-39) And Had ...

Advertising
Advertising (from French Avertir, To Notify”. Originally, Advertising Implied Mere Publication, A Notice For An Individual Or Class, Such As Legal Advertisements. The Word, However, Is Now Generally Applied To The Ad Vertisement Of Merchandise To The Public At Large, Through Periodicals, Circulars, Posters, Painted Signs, Electrical Display, Etc. In ...

Aehrenthal
Aehrenthal, Erkn-tal, Baron (after Ward Courii), Alms Leas Von, Austrian Statesman : B. Grosskal, Bohemia, 27 Nov. 1854; D. Vienna, 18 Feb. 1912. Studied Law At Prague And Bonn; Entered Diplomatic Service 1877; At Taché, Saint Petersburg 1878; Chief Of Cabinet Under Count Kalnoky (foreign Minister) 1883 88; Councillor Of ...

Aerial Navigation
Aerial Navigation, Legal Aspect Of. The Rapid Development Of Aerial Naviga Tion Seems As Yet To Have Produced No Actual Decisions Upon The Novel Questions Of Private Right And Public Regulation Which Sooner Or Later Will Be Presented For Solution. In The Absence Of Express Statute Or International Regulation By ...

Aerians
Aerians, I-e'ri-unz, A Religious Sect Who Arose In The 4th Centusy Of The Christian Church And Present Many Features Of Modern Religious Liberalism In The Way They Combatted Ecclesiastical Tradition And The Institutionalism Professedly Derived From The Apostolic Age. They Derive Their Name From Their Originator And Leader, Kerins, A ...

Aeronautic Charts
Aeronautic 'charts. The Rapid Progress Of Aeronautics Demands The Develop Ment Of A System Of Signals And Charts Which Will Enable Pilots To Find Their Way In The Air And Indicate Convenient Landings, Atmospheric Conditions, Etc. One Proposed Method Involves The Construction Of Special Aeronautical Charts; Another Requires Merely The ...

Aeronautical Nomenclature
Aeronautical Nomenclature. The Following Are The Principal Terms Which Have Come Into Use In The Development Of Aeronautics And Are New And Peculiar To The Subject. Aerofoil, A Thin Wing-like Structure, Flat Or Curved, Designed To Obtain Reaction Upon Its Surfaces From The Air Through Which It Moves. Aeroplane, A ...

Aeronautics
Aeronautics, History' Of. There Has Always Been Interest By Philosophers And Scientists In Aerial Navigation, And The Problem Was Given Serious Thought By The First Physicists Of Whom History Gives Account. To Those Not Versed, Who Consider Mechanical Flight To Have Been Developed Within The Past Few Centuries, It May ...

Aeroplane
Aeroplane (from The Greek Aer, Air; Pianos, Wandering), A Term Now Commonly Used To Define A °heavier Than Air° Flying Ma Chine Equipped With Fixed Aerofoils Or Main Supporting Surfaces And Driven By Suitable Mo Tive Power. Principle.— Everyone Nowadays Is Familiar With The Appearance Of An Aeroplane, But Many ...

Aeroplane Distance And Speed
Aeroplane Distance And Speed Records. The Aeroplane Devel Oped Increased Speed In Successive Years As A Result Of Improved Construction And Design And Especially Of Improvements In Engine-building. A Speed Of 61 Miles Per Hour Was The Greatest Reached Up To 1910, When This Speed Was At Tained In A ...

Aeroplane Engines
Aeroplane Engines. There Are Three Prime Requisites For A Good Aeroplane En Gine — Reliability, Small Weight Per Horse-power And Low Fuel And Oil Consumption. Since These Requirements Are More Or Less Conflicting, A I Compromise Is Necessary And The Designer Is Confronted By The Delicatequestion: Which Of These Is ...

Aerotherapeutics
Aerotherapeutics. This Literal Ly Means The Treatment Of Disease By Air And Is Usually Limited To The Supposed Value Of Air In Certain Chest Diseases, Notably Of Tuber Culosis, And The Use Of Compressed Air For Special Chest Conditions. This Is A Difficult Subject To Treat Since There Is So ...

Aerschot
Aerschot, A Town Of Belgium, 26 Miles Southeast Of Antwerp And 20 Miles Northeast Of Brussels. Situated On The River Demer, It Is A Junction Of Railroad And Steam Tramway Lines Running To Louvain (q.v.), Herenthals, Tirlemont And Haecht. Its Mod Ern Importance Was Derived From Its Cloth Manufacture And ...

Aetius
Aetius, The Last Great Roman General And Savior Of Western Europe From Being Hun: B. Durostorum On The Danube (now Silistria), C. 390 A.d. ; Murdered Toward The End Of 454. He Was Son Of A Distinguished Com Mander Gaudentius (probably Barbarian) ; In Military Service While A Boy, And ...

Aetna
Aetna. See Etna. .ietolia, E-telia, Ancient Greece, A Dis Trict Lying Along The North Shore Of The Gulf Of Corinth And Having Epirus And Thessaly North, Acarnania West, Separated By The Ache Boils And Locris And Dons East, Separated By The Daphnus. The Only Other River Of Any Size Was ...

Afanasiev
Afanasiev, Aleksander Nikolaievich, Russian Folklorist And Antiquarian: B. Bogu Char, Government Of Voronezh, 11 July 1826; D. 23 Sept. 1871. He Received His Education In The Gymnasium Of Voronezh And At The Uni Versity Of Moscow, Where He Studied Law. At His Graduation In 1848 He Entered The Civil Service ...