ALBANI, Francesco, a famous painter: b. Bologna 1578; d. 1660. He entered the school of Dionysius Calvaert, a Flemish painter, who had a great reputation in Bologna. Albani was one of his most distinguished scholars, but quitted him for Ludovico Carracci, under whose instruction he made rapid progress. He labored here several years in connection with Domeni chino, to whom he was closely attached by friendship and love of art; and some resem blance is perceptible in their manner of coloring. But in invention he surpasses his friend, and indeed all his rivals of the school of Calvaert. His female forms Mengs places above those of all other painters. Among the best known of his compositions are the 'Sleeping Venus,' ana in the Bath,' (Danae Reclining,' (Galatea on the Sea,' (Europa on the Bull.' Scriptural subjects he has less frequently selected, but when he has, the paintings are principally dis tinguished for the beauty of the heads of the angels. He had a prosperous school in Rome and Bologna. The scholars of Guido, with whom he vied, accused him of effeminacy and weakness of style, and maintained that he knew not how to give any dignity to male figures. He has been called the Anacreon of painters.
ALBANIA, 5.1'brni-a. The geographical region known as Albania before the Balkan war (1912-13) was made up of the Turkish prov inces of Scutari (the ancient Illyrium) and Yanina (the ancient Epirus), and parts of the Ottoman vilayets of Kossovo and Monastir. It lies in the western part of the Balkan Penin sula and was bordered on the west by the Adriatic, on the northwest by Montenegro, on the north and northeast by Serbia, on the east by Macedonia and on the south by Greece. The southern part of Albania is of a volcanic char acter and earthquakes are very frequent, .al though not very intense. Since the •independ ence of Albania was proclaimed in November 1912 its frontiers have been ill-defined and changing. The eastern natural boundary is a mountain range, which attains in its highest peak an altitude of 8,858 feet. West ward of this range lie parallel chains enclosing long, elevated valleys sinking to level strips along the coast, which, while fertile and well watered, are very unhealthy and swampy. The
highlands advance to the sea, forming steep, rocky coasts. One promontory, the Glossa (an cient Acroceraunia), projecting in Cape Lin guetta far into the sea, reaches a height of 6,642 feet. The most important lakes are Skadar (Scutari), lying for the most part in Montenegro, Ochrida and Janina. The prin ripal rivers are the Boyana, Drin, Shkumbi, Mad (Matli), Voyussa and Devol. The cli mate in the highland is healthful but subject to violent changes and excessive cold in winter. The sea-coast is malarial in parts and exposed to the violent bora or north winds. The principal ports are Drat (Duraz zo) and. Sindjin (S. Giovanni di Medua). The estimated probable area of the country is between 10,500 and 11,500 square miles, and the population between 800,000 and 850,000 souls.
The Albanians, especially in north, have never been an agricultural people, and although the soil, apart from some chalky regions, is fertile, great tracks remain unculti vated. In the cultivated areas the methods used are exceedingly primitive, and agricultural and industrial development is further hindered by lack of transportation, there being no railways, few roads and few bridges. In the north little is cultivated but maize; the mountain terraces are used as pastures for horses, cattle and sheep. In the south the slopes of the lower valleys are covered with olives, fruit and mul berry trees, intermixed with patches of vines and maize, while the densely wooded mountain ridges furnish valuable supplies of timber. The plateau of Janina yields abundance of grain; and in the valleys opening to the south the finer fruits are produced, along with maize and wheat. In 1902 the chief exports were wool, hides, olives, fish, fruit and maize. Durazzo, Valona and Scutari are the chief towns. In dustries are primitive and include fishing, ex traction of sea-salt, gold and silk embroideries and filigree work. Tobacco is produced in abundance and is of excellent quality. The mountains are thought to be rich in minerals, especially copper and coal, but mining is prac tically unknown.