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Encyclopedia Americana, Volume 1

Albani
Albani, Francesco, A Famous Painter: B. Bologna 1578; D. 1660. He Entered The School Of Dionysius Calvaert, A Flemish Painter, Who Had A Great Reputation In Bologna. Albani Was One Of His Most Distinguished Scholars, But Quitted Him For Ludovico Carracci, Under Whose Instruction He Made Rapid Progress. He Labored ...

Albany Regency
Albany Regency, In American Politi Cal History, The Nickname Of A Powerful Group Of Democratic Leaders In New York State, Who Controlled The Party Machinery There And Acted Together For Influence In State And Na Tional Affairs About 1820 To 1854. The Name Was Given Because The Members Of The ...

Albatross
Albatross (corrupted From Portug. Alcutroz, The Cormorant; From Ar. Al, The; Gadus, Bucket, On Account Of Its Pouch), A Large, Almost Exclusively Pelagic Bird Of The Family Dionedeide, A Feature Of The Lonely Southern Oceans. They Are Rarely Seen On The North At Lantic, But Frequent Nearly All Other Seas, ...

Albert
Albert, First Duke Of Prussia, And The Last Grand Master Of The Teutonic Order, Son Of Frederick, Margrave Of Ansbach And Bai Reuth, And Grandson Of Albert Achilles, Elector Of Brandenburg: B. 17 May 1490; D. 20 March 1568. He Was Educated Under The Care Of Arch Bishop. Hermann Of ...

Albert I
Albert I, Margrave Of Surnamed The Bear, From His Heraldic Emblem. Was The Son Of Otto The Rich, Count Of Balk! Stadt ; D. 1170. As Marquis Of Lusatia He Senne The Emperor Lothaire With Credit In His With Bohemia. The Diet Afterward Withdrew Lusatia From Him, But The Emperor ...

Albert I
Albert I, King Of The Belgians: Albert Leopold Clement Marie Meinrad, Duke Of Sax Ony, Prince Of Saxe-coburg And Gotha, Second Son Of Prince Philip Baldwin, Count Of Flan Ders, And Princess Marie Of Hohenzollern: B. Brussels, 8 April 1875; Married 2 Oct. 1900 To Elizabeth, Duchess Of (in) Bavaria, ...

Albert I_2
Albert I, Duke Of Austria, And After Ward Emperor Of Germany: B. 1248; D. 1 May 1308; Son Of Rudolph Of Hapsburg, Who Had A Short Time Before His Death Attempted To Place The Crown On The Head Of His Son. But The Electors, Tired Of His Power And Emboldened ...

Alberta
Alberta, Al-bileta, Canada, A North Western Province. A Part Of The Present Area Of The Province Was In 1882 Given Territorial Status And Called Alberta In Honor Of H. R. H. Princess Louise Caroline Alberta, Daughter Of Queen Victoria And Wife Of The Marquis Of Lorne, 9th Duke Of Argyle, ...

Albigenses
Albigenses, Arbe-gh-sez, A Religious Sect, Corning First Into Prominence In The 12th Century, And Taking Its Name From Albi, Their Principal Stronghold. What Their Doctrines Were Has Not Been Determined, As No Formal Statement Of Them Was Ever Drawn Up. It Ap Pears That The Albigenses Held Beliefs Similar To ...

Albite
Albite, An Important Member Of The Feldspar Group Of Minerals. It Stands At One End Of The Albite-anorthite Series Of Triclinic Feldspars (see Feldspar Game). It Is A Sodium Aluminum Silicate, Na Al Sw., And Is Often Called "soda Feldspar' It Has Perfect Basal Cleavage And Also Cleaves Easily Parallel ...

Albov
Albov, Mikhail Nilov, Russian Man Of Letters: B. Saint Petersburg 1851. From His Earliest Childhood He Showed A Manifest Love For Reading, Especially Of Foreign Masterpieces. 'robinson 'david Copperfield' And 'the Dead Souls' Left On Him The Deepest Im Pression. While Still In The Second Grade In Gymnasium He Wrote ...

Albuquerque
Albuquerque, Affoneo D', "the Great, Viceroy Of The Indies: B. Near Lis Bon 1453; D. Goa, 16 Dec. 1515. The Portu Guese Had Discovered And Subjugated A Great Part Of The Western Coast Of Africa And Were Beginning To Extend Their Dominion Over The Seas And The People Of India. ...

Albuquerque_2
Albuquerque, Al'bii-kfirle, N. M., Largest City Of The State And County-seat Of Bernalillo County; Situated On The Rio Grande And The Atchinson, Texas And Santa Fe And The Santa Fe And New Mexico Central Rail Roads, 56 Miles In A Direct Line Southwest Of Santa Fe. It Has An Elevation ...

Alcestis 438
Alcestis (438 S.c.), The Earliest Extant Play Of Euripides, Is One Of The Most Touching Dramas That Have Come Down To Us From An Tiquity; Some Of The Scenes, In The Opinion Of Racine, Are Incomparable. Alcestis, The Daughter Of King Pelias Of Iolcus, Married The Thessalian, Admetus, King Of ...

Alchemist
Alchemist, The. In (the Alchemist,' The Crowning Composition Of That Second Period Of Jonson's Comedy Which Began About 1605, We Have, In Coleridge's Judgment, One Of The Three Perfect Plots Of All Literature, Revolving Around Characters Whose Very Extravagances Broaden Our Knowledge Of Human Nature. The First Of Modern Critics, ...

Alcibiades
Alcibiades, 41'sl-bitclez, Son Of Clein Ias, An Athenian Of High Family: B. Athens 450 Ac.; D. 404 B.c. His Father, Who Died A Few Years After His Birth, Had Greatly Distinguished Himself In The Persian Wars, And Had Taken A Prominent Part In The Expulsion Of The Peisis Tratidm. Alcibiades ...

Alcohol
Alcohol. Origin Of The Word Some What Obscure. According To Most Authorities It Is From The Arabic Al-kohq, Kok'l Being The Finely-powdered Black Sulphide Of Antimony Used In The East For Painting The Eyebrows. First Used To Signify This Powder, It Afterward Stood For Any Fine Powder Obtained By Trituration ...

Alcoholism
Alcoholism, A Term Applied To The Symptoms Produced By Poisoning With Ethyl Alcohol (see Alcohol). Alcoholism May Be Acute, Subacute Or Chronic, And In Order To Understand Its Phases A Brief Review Of The More Important Features Of The Physiological Action Of Alcohol Is Necessary. Locally Alcohol Is An Irritant, ...

Alcott
Alcott, Amos Bronson, Ameri Can Philosopher And Educator: B. Wolcott, Conn., 29 Nov. 1799; D. 4 March 1888. In 1823 'he Set Up An Infant School, Teaching It By Con Versation; And It Gained Much Local Fame. In 1828 He Removed To Boston, And Till 1836 Con Ducted A School ...

Alcott_2
Alcott, Louisa May, American Novelist, Daughter Of A. B. Alcott : B. Germantown, Pa., 29 Nov. 1832; D. Boston, Mass., 6 March Two Days After Her Father. She Was Two Years Old When Her Parents Moved To Boston; Eight When They Went To Concord. Her Father Was Her Chief Teacher, ...

Alcuin
Alcuin, Irkwin, Or Flaccus Al Binus, An Englishman, Renowned In His Age For Learning; The Confidant, Instructor And Ad Viser Of Charlemagne. He Was Born Probably In York In 735 And Was Educated Under The Care Of Archbishop Egbert, And His Successor /elbert, With Whom He Went To The Continent, ...

Aldegrever
Aldegrever, Iil'cle-gra'v&, Or Aldb, Graf, Heinrich, German Artist: B. Pader Born, Westphalia, 1502; Cl. Soest Before 1561; The Most Important Artist Of Westphalia During The 16th Century And One Of The Great Names In Th German Art. The Story Of His Life Can Only Be Gathered From Fragmentary Allusions Which ...

Aldehyde
Aldehyde (*dehydrogenated Alcohol,' Or Alcohol Which Has Been Deprived Of A Portion Of Its Hydrogen), A Substance Intermediate In Composition Between A Primary Alcohol And The Corresponding Acid. When An Alcohol (q.v.) Containing The Molecular Group Chloh Is Acted Upon By Oxidizing Agents, It Loses Two Atoms Of Hydrogen From ...

Alderman
Alderman, Edwin Ander Son, American Educator: B. Wilmington, N. C., 15 May 1861. He Was Educated At The Univer Sity Of North Carolina; Was Superintendent Of The Public Schools Of Goldsboro, N. C., 1884 87; Assistant State Superintendent Of North Carolina, 1889-92; Professor Of English And History At The State ...

Alderney
Alderney (french Aurigny ), An Island Belonging To Great Britain, On The Coast Of Nor G Mandy, 10 Miles Due West Of Ca La Hague And I 60 From The Nearest Point Of Land, The Most Northerly Of The Channel Islants . It Is About 4 Miles Long And 1% ...

Aldershot
Aldershot, Camp At, A Permanent Camp For The Army In England, Com Menced In 1854 By The Purchase On The Part Of Government Of An Extensive Tract Of Moorland Known By The Name Of Aldershot Heath, Lying On The Confines Of Surrey, Hampshire And Berkshire. The Object Was To Accustom ...

Aldine
Aldine, Irdin, Editions, The Books Printed By Aldus Manutius And His Family In Venice (1490-1597). They Comprise The First Editions Of Greek And Roman Classics; Others Contain Corrected Texts Of Modern Classic Writ Ers, As Of Petrarch, Dante Or Boccaccio, Care Fully Collated With The Mss. All Of Them Are ...

Aldrich
Aldrich, Al'drich, Nelson Wilmarth, American Legislator: B. Foster, R. I., 6 Nov. 1841. A Farmer's Lad, With Only District-school Education, He Was Clerk In A Store From About 12 To 16; But, Naturally Studious And With A Strong Taste For Mathematics, Entered The East Greenwich Academy In 1857, And After ...

Aldrovandi
Aldrovandi, Alidrei-vanide, Ulis' Se, Italian Naturalist: B. Bologna, 11 Sept. 1522; D. 10 May 1605. He Aroused Interest In The Nat Ural Sciences, At• A Time When They Had Been Long Neglected, Wrote Profusely On Natural His Tory Subjects, Established The Botanical Garden Of Bologna And, Through His Legacy To ...

Aleksandra Feodorovna
Aleksandra Feodorovna, Em Press Of Russia, Consort Of Emperor Nicholas I: B. 1 July 1798; D. 19 Oct. 1860. She Was A Daughter Of King Frederick William Iii Of Prussia And Queen Louise Charlotte Wilhel Mine. Aleksandra Feodorovna's Childhood Belonged To The Period Of Prussia's Down Fall Caused By Napoleon. ...

Alexander
Alexander Of Aphrodisias, Surnamed ; Lived About 200 A.d.; A Learned Com Mentator On The Works Of Aristotle. (4) Al Exander Cornelius, Surnamed Polyhistor, Of The 1st Century S.c. He Was Made Prisoner Dur Ing The War Of Sulla ,in Greece And Sold As A Slave To Cornelius Lentulus, Who ...

Alexander I
Alexander I, Emperor Of Russia, Son Of Grand Duke Paul Petrovitch And Grand Duchess Maria Feodorovna, Née Princess Of Wurtemberg: B. 23 Dec. 1777; Ascended The Throne 24 March 1801,• D. 1 Dec. 1825. Em Press Catharine The Great Took Care Of His Education, Which Was Conducted According To The ...

Alexander I_2
Alexander I, Prince Of Bulgaria, Ne Prince Of Battenberg: B. 17 April 1857; D. 26 Nov. 1893. He Received His Military Education In The Cadet-corps In Dresden And Was Ap Pointed Second Lieutenant In The 24th Dragoon Regiment. Later He Served With The Russian Uhlans, In Whose Ranks He Fought ...

Alexander Ii
Alexander Ii, Emperor Of Russia, Eldest Son Of Emperor Nicholas Pavlovitch And Grand Duchess Alexandra Theodorovna: B. 29 April 1818; D. Saint Petersburg, 13 March 1881. After Having Received A Careful Education, Under The Conduct Of Professors Merder And Zhukov Ski, Which Covered Especially Natural Sciences, Statistics, Law And Modern ...

Alexander Iii
Alexander Iii, Emperor Of Russia, Second Son Of Emperor Alexander Ii And Em Press Maria: B. 10 March 1845; Ascended The Throne 13 March 1866 At The Age Of 36; D. Livadia, 1 Nov. 1894. He Married Princess Dagmar, The Daughter Of King Christian Ix Of Denmark, Who Changed Her ...

Alexander The Great
Alexander The Great, The 3d King Of Macedon Bearing The Name Which He Made So Famous: B. Pella 356 Ts.c.; D. Babylon 323 B.c. His Mother Was Olympias, An Epirote Princess, Who Traced Her Descent From Achilles: There Is Little Reason To Doubt That His Father Was Philip Of Macedon, ...

Alexander_2
Alexander, The Name Of Eight Popes. 1. Alexander I, Bishop Of Rome About 109 A.d., Recorded On The List Of Popes By All The Chronicles Except Optatus Milevitanus. He Confirmed, Some Say Introduced, The Rite Of Using Unleavened Bread For The Eucharist, Of Blessing Water With Salt, And Certain Rubrics ...

Alexander_3
Alexander I (obrenovircu), King Of Serbia, Second Son Of King Milan And Queen Nathalie: B. 14 Aug. 1876; D. 10 June 1903. He Received His Education Chiefly In Serbia Where He Mingled With A Band Of Young Officers Of No Very High Culture. Even From His Early Boy Hood Those ...

Alexandria
Alexandria, Va., City And Port Of Entry Of Alexandria County, Situated On The Potomac River, The Pennsylvania, The Southern, The Atlantic Coast Line, The Baltimore And Ohio, The Seaboard Air Line And The Chesa Peake And Ohio, And Trolley Line Connecting With Washington, D. C., And Mount Vernon; Six Miles ...

Alexandria Iskanderieh
Alexandria (iskanderieh Of The Turks), An Ancient City And Chief Seaport In Egypt, About 14 Miles West Of The Canopic Mouth Of The Nile, On The Ridge Of Land Be Tween The Sea And The Bed Of The Old Lake Ma Reotis, 129 Miles By Rail Northwest Of Cairo. Ancient ...

Alexandrian Library
Alexandrian Library, A Remark Able Collection Of Books, The Largest Of The An Cient World, Was Founded By The First Ptolemy And Fostered By His Son. It Quickly Grew And, Already In The Time Of The First Ptolemy, De Metrius Phalereus Had 50,000 Volumes Or Rolls Under His Care. During ...

Alexandrists
Alexandrists. In The Period Of The Renaissance There Came To Be A Vigorous Con Troversy Between The Adherents Of Different Traditions Of Aristotelianism. The Chief Schools Of The Aristotelians Were The Thomists, Or Fol Lowers Of Thomas Aquinas, The Averroists, Or Followers Of Averroes, And The Alexandrists, Or Followers Of ...

Alexeieff
Alexeieff, Michael Vassilivitch, Ii-lexa'yief, Russian General: B. Tver About 1848. Educated At The Classical Gymnasium In His Native Town, He Passed To The Moscow Mili Tary Academy And Was Attached To A Kazan Regiment In 1876, Attaining The Rank Of Captain In 1885. Ambition Led Him, About 1879, To Enter ...

Alexius
Alexius (comnenus), Emperor Of Con Stantinople: B. 1048; D. 15 Aug. 1118. He Was The Third Son Of John Comnenus, The Emperor Isaac's Brother. Naturally Clever, He Was Care Fully Educated Under The Direction Of His Moth Er; And At The Age Of 14 Took Part In An En Gagement ...

Alfalfa
Alfalfa, Also Called Lucerne (q.v.) (medicago Saliva), Is A Herbaceous Plant Be Longing To The Family Fabaceee. The Leaves Are Pinnate-trifoliate; Its Flowers Small, Gener Ally Purple In Color, Dense In Spikes. The Plant Is A Native Of Asia, But Has Been Cultivated In Europe Since Before The Time Of ...

Alfieri
Alfieri, Vittorio, Italian Tragic Poet: B. Asti, Piedmont, 17 Jan. 1749, Of Parents, As He Tells Us In His (autobiography,' "noble, Well-to Do And Honest"; D. Florence, 18 Oct. 1803. The (vita Di Vittorio Alfieri Da Asti Scritta Da Esso> ("life Of Vittorio Alfieri Written By Himself") Furnishes The Material ...

Alfonso Xiii
Alfonso Xiii, King Of Spain, Son Of Alfonso Xii And Maria Christina, Daughter Of Karl Ferdinand, Archduke Of Austria: B. After His Father's Death, 17 May 1886, Succeeding By His Birth,' Being A Male, His Eldest Sister. His Mother Was Made Queen Regent During His Minority. On 17 May 1902 ...

Alfred The Great
Alfred The Great, King Of The West-saxons: B. 848, At Wantage In Berkshire. He Was The Youngest Son Of 2ethelwulf, Suc Ceeding To The Throne In 871, After The Three Short Reigns Of His Brothers 2ethelbald, 2ethel Bert And /ethelred. The Day Of His Death Was 28 October, The Year ...

Algebra
Algebra, Definitions And Fundamental Concepts. The Word Is Occasionally Used With The Same Meaning As In The Sense Of A Body Of Mathe Matical Entities Which Obey A Given Set Of Laws Or Formula. Accordingly We Speak Of The Algebra Of Logic, The Algebra Of Quaternions, The Algebra Of Relations, ...

Algeria
Algeria, A French Colony In North Africa, Situated Between Lat. And N. And Long. 2° 10' W. And 50' E., Having On The North The Mediterranean, On The East Tunis, On The West Morocco And On The South (where The Boundary Is Ill-defined) The Desert Of Sahara; Area 184,474 Square ...

Algiers
Algiers, Al-jerz (french, Alger), Al Geria, A City And Seaport On The Mediterranean, Capital Of The French Colony Of Algeria, Situ Ated On The West Side Of The Bay Of Algiers. It Stands On The Slope Of A Hill Facing The Sea, From Which Its Array Of White Houses, Rising ...

Alhambra
Alhambra (kelezt-al-harnrah, The Red Castle), The Citadel Of Granada When That City Was One Of The Principal Seats Of The Empire Of The Moors In Spain. The Wall Which Sur Rounded It Still Stands Flanked By Many Towers, And Has A Circuit Of Two And One-fourth Miles. Within It Were ...

Ali
Ali, •'ie, Cousin And Son-in-law Of Mo Hammed, The First Of His Converts, And The Bravest And Most Faithful Of His Adherents; B. 602; D. 661. He Married Fatima, The Daughter Of The Prophet, But After The Death Of Moham Med (632) His Claims To The Caliphate Were Set Aside ...

Alices Adventures In Won
Alice's Adventures In Won Derland (published 1865), By Charles Lut Widge Dodgson ("lewis Grew Out Of A Story Which The Author Told The Three Little Daughters Of Dean Liddell —one Of Them The Original Alice — While Boating On The Thames Near Oxford. Its Success Led Him To Write The ...

Alien And Sedition Acts
Alien And Sedition Acts, In American Political History, Four Acts Passed By The Federalist Party In Congress In The Summer Of 1798, Under John Adams, Which Were The Immediate Cause Of The First Nullification Pro Ceedings In The South (see Kentucky Resolu Tions; Nullification; Virginia Resolu Tions) And One Of ...

Aliens
Aliens, Aryinz. An Alien Is Any Person To Whom The Rights Of Citizenship Have Not Been Granted By The State In Which He Resides Or So Journs. Though Subject To The Jurisdiction Of The State, And In A Sense Clothed With Its Na Tional Character, If Domiciled Therein, Aliens Are ...

Alimony
Alimony, In Law, The Allowance Awarded Out Of Her Husband's Estate, To Which A Wife Is Entitled On Separation Or Divorce. Jurisdiction In This Matter In England Rested With The Ec Clesiastical Court Until 1857, When It Was Con Ferred Upon A Court Of Divorce. In The United States It ...

Alizarin
Alizarin (from Alizari, The Commercial Name Of Madder In The East), A Substance Hav Ing The Formula Culieda.(oh).„ Formerly Ob Tained From The Root Of The Madder (rubio Tinctoria), But Now Artificially Produced From Coal-tar And The Refuse From The Distillation Of Crude Petroleum. It Is Used As A Dye, ...

Alkaloids
Alkaloids, Organic Bases, Forming Defi Nite Salts With Acids And Resembling In Some Respects The Metals Of The Alkalis, Hence The Name. A Number Of Basic Nitrogenous Com Pounds Of Marked Physiological Action And Somewhat Analogous In Their Chemical Composi Tion. It Has Been Proposed To Limit The Word Alkaloid ...

Allahabad
Allahabad, Ma-ha-bad' (from Allah, God; Abad, Abode; The "abode Of God")india, An Ancient City, Capital Of A Division And 'district Of The Same Name, As Well As Of The Whole Of The Northwest Provinces, 72 Miles West Of Benares. The Native Town Consists Largely Of Mud Houses. Its English Suburb ...

Allan D Risteen Air
Allan D. Risteen. Air, In Music (in Italian, Aria), Means A Continuous Melody In Which Some Lyric Subject Or Passion Is Expressed. The Lyric Melody Of A Single Voice, Accompanied By Instruments, Is Its Proper Form Of Composition. The Word Also Designates The Entire Composition In Such Ex Pressions As ...

Alleghany Mountains Or Alle
Alleghany Mountains Or Alle Ghany Plateau, A Name Sometimes Used To Designate The Entire Appalachian Mountain System, But More Properly Applied To The Western Range Of This System In Pennsylvania, Mary Land, Virginia And West Virginia. They Begin Near The New York And Pennsylvania Border— The Catskills Forming A Northern ...

Allegiance
Allegiance. Allegiance Is The Obliga Tion Of Obedience Or Service Which One Person Owes To Another Or To The State. During The Feudal Age Those Who Held Lands Of A Feudal Lord Owed Him Allegiance; To-day, However, The Allegiance Of The Individual Is Only To The State Or Its Symbolic ...

Allen
Allen, Ethan, American Soldier: B. Litchfield, Conn., 10 Jan. 1737; D. Burlington, Vt., 13 Feb. 1789. About 1769 He Removed To Bennington, Vt. The Vermont Territory Had Been Given By The Crown To Both New Hamp Shire And New York Under Conflicting Grants; And When The Dispute Was Settled (1764) ...

Allentown
Allentown, Pa., City And County-seat Of Lehigh County, On The Lehigh Valley, Cen Tral Of New Jersey. Philadelphia And Reading And The Perkiomen Railways And The Lehigh Canal, 92 Miles West Of New York City, 55 Miles North Of Philadelphia And 98 Miles East Of Harrisburg. The Commercial And Industrial ...

Alliance
Alliance, Ohio, A City Of Stark County, 56 Miles Southeast Of Cleveland, An Important Railroad Centre For The Lake Shore And Michi Gun Southern, Pittsburg, Fort Wayne And Chicago, Alliance, Niles And Ashtabula, Cleveland And Pittsburg Railways And Three Interurban Lines. Located In A Fertile Grain 'growing Region On The ...

Alliance_2
Alliance (all Of Which See.) An Alliance (the Dual) Was Started In 1893 Between France And Russia And Definitely Established In 1897. In 1903 Was Initiated The So-called *entente Cordiale* Between France And Great Britain, Which Became Definite In 1905 After The Anglo French Convention Of 1904, By Which Were ...

Alliances
Alliances, In International Relations, Are Coalitions Or Leagues Entered Into Between Rulers Or States For The Purpose Of Combined Action Of A Political Or Military Nature. An Alliance Maybe Defensive Or Offensive, Or Both. In Giving Circumstances Stipulated For In A Treaty. A Treaty Is The Contract Signed By The ...

Allied War Commissions To
Allied War Commissions To The United States. Beginning In April 1917, A Succession Of Conferences Took Place In The United States, The Main Objects Of Which Were To Co-ordinate The Efforts Of The Entente Allies And Of The United States And To Discuss The Conduct Of The War In Europe. ...

Alligator
Alligator, The Name Of A Genus Of Crocodilian Reptiles Derived Form A Corruption Of The Spanish El Lagarto, From The Latin Lacertus, A Lizard. Alligators Differ From Crocodiles Mainly In Having Relatively Short And Broad Snouts And By The Circumstance That As A Rule The First And Fourth Tooth On ...