ALDRICH, al'drich, Nelson Wilmarth, American legislator: b. Foster, R. I., 6 Nov. 1841. A farmer's lad, with only district-school education, he was clerk in a store from about 12 to 16; but, naturally studious and with a strong taste for mathematics, entered the East Greenwich Academy in 1857, and after gradua tion took a position in a large wholesale house in Providence, where he soon became a partner. In 1862 he was for nine months on garrison duty near Washington. In 1869 he was elected to the Providence common council, where he became a leader as expert in finance and busi ness, and a dexterous manager without compro mise of right, and was its president 1871-73. In 1875 he was elected to the legislature, and in 1876 was speaker of its house. In 1878 he was sent to Congress, taking his seat in 1879 (42d Congress) ; re-elected for the term 1881 83, he resigned in 1881, having been elected to the United States Senate on 4 October to succeed Gen. A. E. Burnside, and was re elected in 1886, 1892, 1898 and 1904, practically without opposition in his party. In 1909 he
successfully promoted the passage of the Payne-Aldrich tariff bill, passed by Congress and signed by the President in 1910. His term as senator expired 3 March 1911; but he de clined to stand for re-election and was suc ceeded by Henry F. Levintritt. During more than 20 years he has been known as one of the chief Republican leaders, an authority on finance and political economy, and a champion of protection; rarely taking part in debate, but powerful in legislative work, a member of committees on civil service and finance and chairman of the committee on rules for the 55th Congress. In 1911 Aldrich put forward a plan intended to increase the effectiveness of resources through their control by reserve as sociations, a scheme received with suspicion by the general public, though not unfavorably re garded by experts.