ALDROVANDI, alidrei-vanide, Ulis' se, Italian naturalist: b. Bologna, 11 Sept. 1522; d. 10 May 1605. He aroused interest in the nat ural sciences, at• a time when they had been long neglected, wrote profusely on natural his tory subjects, established the Botanical Garden of Bologna and, through his legacy to the Sen ate of Bologna of his collections, left behind him the germ of the great Bologna Museum. A short account of his life, together with a descriptive list of his published writings and manuscripts, may be found in 'Notizie degli Scrittori Bolognesi' (Vol. I, Bologna 1781). He was the first to collect an herbarium, in the modern sense of the word. He traveled widely, collecting plants and animals, and preparing himself to write a great work on the animal life of the world. Of this work four volumes on ornithology and one on mollusks were is sued before his death, and 10 others, prepared by him from his material, were brought out afterward by his pupils and friends. any of his manuscripts and drawings were preserved unpublished in the library of Bologna.
ALE and BEER, well known and exten sively used fermented liquors, the best of which is prepared from barley after it has undergone the process termed malting. Beer is a more general term than ale, being often used for any kind of fermented malt liquor, including por ter, though it is also used in a more special signification. ((The numerous varieties of malt liquors met with in commerce may be resolved into three great classes — ale, beer, porter. Ale, as the term is generally understood, is a pale liquor brewed from lightly-dried malt, and abounding more or less in unfermented sac charine matter, dextrines, proteins, phosphates and the bitter and fragrant principles of the hop. Beer is a fine, strong, well-fermented liquor, darker, less saccharine and less alcoholic than ordinary ale. Porter is a dark-brown col ored liquor, originally brewed from high-dried malt, but now generally made from pale malt, with a sufficient quantity of patent or roasted malt to impart the necessary color and flavor.
Stout, brown stout, etc., are mere varieties of porter, differing from that liquor only in their superior strength and quality. East India ale, bitter ale, etc., of the great brewers, are bever ages which combine the pale color and fragrant bitter of ale (the latter usually in undue ex cess) with the 'dryness' and maturity of beer. In London porter is called beer, and indeed in all parts of the kingdom the prevailing bever age of this kind consumed by the masses, of whatever class, commonly goes by the name of beer. The three great classes of malt liquor above referred to are, independent of mere dif ferences of strength, excellence and commercial value, practically subdivided into an almost in finite number of varieties. Every county, every town and almost every brewer is distinguished by the production of a different flavored beer, readily perceived and highly appreciated by their respective votaries* ((Cyclopzdia of Practical Receipts'). These differences depend chiefly on the quality of the materials and the varying proportions in which they are em ployed, the temperature of the water used for mashing, the length of time the mash is boiled, the temperature at which fermentation is ef fected and the extent to which it is allowed to proceed. The color of the beer depends on the color of the malt and the length of time occu pied by the boiling. The pale ale is made from malt dried at relatively low temperatures; the deep-yellow ale, from a mixture of pale, yel low and brown malt: and the dark-brown beer from matt that has ht en 11011) dried in the kiln and partly roasted, mixed with the paler sorts. Of all countries, Germany has been celebrated as a beer-drinking country from the earliest times. Many different kinds of beer are made there, among the most important being the Bavarian summer or lager (that is, store) beer, and winter beer, the Bavarian bock beer, Berlin white beer, wheat lager beer, Broyhan beer (Hanover), Merseburg brown beer, etc.