ALEXANDER I, Prince of Bulgaria, ne Prince of Battenberg: b. 17 April 1857; d. 26 Nov. 1893. He received his military education in the cadet-corps in Dresden and was ap pointed second lieutenant in the 24th dragoon regiment. Later he served with the Russian Uhlans, in whose ranks he fought against the Turks in the Russo-Turkish War of 1877-78. On 10 May 1879, thanks to his influence in Germany, Austria and even of his Russian friends, he was elected by the Bulgarian So branje of Trnovo, hereditary Prince of Bul garia, immediately after which event he visited the most important courts of Europe and, on 17 July 1879, he was presented to his suzerain, Sultan Abdul-Hamid II, from whom he ob tained the imperial firman granting him the principality of Bulgaria. Soon after his ascen sion to the throne he initiated an anti-Russian policy, ignoring the deeds of Emperor Alex ander II, called by the Bulgarians the Liberator,' which, naturally, alienated Russian friendship for Bulgaria. In 1885 King Milan of Serbia declared war on Bulgaria in order to prevent the annexation of East Rumelia to that principality, which ended by the Treaty of Bucharest 1886 but which, although favor able for Bulgaria, did not in any measure im prove Alexander's impossible position. How
ever, the unfriendly attitude of Alexander toward Russia caused in Bulgaria a popular movement and on 3 Sept. 1886 his palace in Sofia was attacked and he was kidnapped and taken to the Russian town Reni. Afterward he was released and taken back to Sofia through the indignation of his pOwerful party. Having lost Russian protectorate he found it absolutely indispensable to abdicate (7 Sept. 1886) and to leave Bulgaria and to join the Austrian army in the capacity of a colonel of the dragoons. He was buried in the church of St. George at Sofia. Consult Koch, A. (Alexander's chap lain), 'Mitteilungen aus dem Leben and der Regierung des Fiirsten Alexander von Bul (Darmstadt 1887; Draudor, Prince Alexander of Battenberg (1884) Macdonald, 'Czar Ferdinand and His People' (New York 1913) ; Sobolef, 'Der erste F'first von Bul garien) (Leipzig 1886).