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porte, yanina and death

ALI, 'IE, cousin and son-in-law of Mo hammed, the first of his converts, and the bravest and most faithful of his adherents; b. 602; d. 661. He married Fatima, the daughter of the prophet, but after the death of Moham med (632) his claims to the caliphate were set aside in favor successively of Abu-Bekr, Omar and Othman. On the assassination of Othman, in 656 A.D., he became caliph, and after a series of struggles with his opponents, including Aye sha, 'widow of Mohammed, finally lost his life by assassination at Kufa. A Mohammedan schism arose after his death, and has produced two sects. One sect, called the Shiites, put Ali on a level with Mohammed, and do not ac knowledge the three caliphs who preceded Ali. They are regarded as heretics by the other sect, called Sunnites. The Maxims and Hymns of Ali are yet extant. See CALIPH.

ALI, pasha of Yanina, commonly styled Au PAsnA, a bold and able, but ferocious and utterly unscrupulous, Albanian: b. 1741, son of an Albanian chief who was deprived of his ter ritories by rapacious neighbors. By his enter prise and success and entire want of scruple he got possession of more than his father had lost, making himself master of a large part of Al bania, including Yanina, which the Porte sanc tioned his holding, with the title of pasha. As

a ruler he displayed excellent qualities, putting an end to brigandage and anarchy, making roads, and encouraging commerce. He ex tended his sway by subduing the brave Suliotes of Epirus, whom he conquered in 1803 after a three years' war. Aiming at independent sover eignty, he intrigued alternately with England, France and Russia. Latterly he was almost independent of the Porte, which at length de termined to put an end to his power; and in 1820 Sultan Mahmoud pronounced his deposi tion. Ali resisted several pashas who were sent to carry out this decision, only surrendering at last in 1822 on receiving assurances that life and property should be granted him. Faith was not kept with him, however; he was killed and his head cut off and conveyed to Constantinople, while his treasures were seized by the Porte.