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Alliance

treaty, war, party, peace, agree, powers, france and anglo

ALLIANCE (all of which see.) An alliance (the Dual) was started in 1893 between France and Russia and definitely established in 1897. In 1903 was initiated the so-called *Entente Cordiale* between France and Great Britain, which became definite in 1905 after the Anglo French Convention of 1904, by which were settled all the outstanding disputes between the two countries referring to Egypt, Morocco, and the Newfoundland Fisheries. The Anglo Russian Agreement of 1907 similarly settled disputes between those two countries, and the Entente developed into the Triple Entente of Great Britain, France and Russia. Just after Germany had declared war on Russia in 1914, Sir Edward (now Viscount) Grey informed the House of Commons (3 August) that *The Triple Entent; was not an alliance; it was a diplomatic group. . . . Up till yesterday no promise of anything more than diplomatic sup port was given. . . . We are not parties to the Franco-Russian Alliance. We do not even know the terms of it After the Morocco crisis in 1911 .Sir Edward Grey had written to the French Ambassador (22 Nov. 1912) to the following effect: . . . I agree that, if either government had grave reason to expect an unprovoked attack by a third Power or something which threatened the general peace, it should immediately discuss with the other whether both governments should act together to prevent aggression and to preserve peace, and, if so, what measures they would be pre pared to take in common.* The Anglo-Japanese Alliance dates from 1902; it was renewed in 1905 and revised in 1911. The objects aimed at in the treaty are the maintenance of peace in eastern Asia and India; the preservation of the independence and integrity of China with the "open and the maintenance of the territorial rights and the defense of the special interests of the contracting powers in the Far East.. It is also provided that if by reason of unprovoked at tack or aggressive action, wherever arising, on the part of any other power or powers, either party should be involved in war in de fense of its territorial rights or special inter ests, the other party will at once come to the assistance of its ally, and will conduct the war in common, and make peace in mutual agree ment with it. This agreement was modified in 1911, mainly by the addition of a new article providing that °should either party conclude a treaty of general arbitration with a third Power, it is agreed that nothing in this agree ment shall entail upon such party an obligation to go to war with the Power with whom such treaty of arbitration is in force.* The proviso

as to arbitration had in view the Anglo American unlimited Arbitration Treaty signed in 1911, but not ratified by the Senate (see • below.

The Anglo-Portuguese Alliance has a re markable history. On 23 Feb. 1916 Portugal seized 36 German and Austrian merchant ships interned in her ports. Germany declared war o 10 March 1916. The Portuguese Minister in Washington, Viscomde de Alte, stated that his country's entrance into the war was in fulfilment of a treaty obligation entered into between England and Portugal on 16 June 1373, of 543 years ago. The friendly relations which Henry II of England (d. 1189) had established with the princes of the Iberian Peninsula made the few dealings between the early Portuguese monarchs and the English court of a generally amicable nature. The treaty in question was concluded between Edward III and Ferdinand of Portugal, and provided that Portugal should join England (there was no °Great then), in warfare when called upon to do so. A commercial treaty was concluded with Eng land in 1645 and renewed in 1652. These treaties had never been broken through the centuries. Again, in 1898, treaties were pub lished in which neither party will help another nation in attacking the other party, and in case of war or invasion both powers agreed to assist each other when required.

In September 1914 was concluded the Anglo American Treaty by which the contracting powers agree that "all disputes between them, of every nature whatsoever, other than dis putes the settlement of which is provided for and in fact achieved under existing agreements. . . . shall, when diplomatic methods of ad justment have failed, be referred for investi gation and report to a Permanent International Commission .. and they agree not to declare war or hostilities during such investigation and before the report is sub mitted.* In September 1914 the Allied Powers, Great Britain, France and Russia, signed a declara tion that they would not conclude peace sep arately, and that no one of the Allies would demand conditions of peace without the pre vious agreement of each of the other Allies. Japan and Italy subsequently gave their full and complete adherence to this treaty of alliance (November 1915).