ERATOSTHENES, er-a-toris'the-nez Greek astronomer, geographer and philosopher: b. Cyrene, Africa, 276 B.C.; d. about 196 a.c. He studied in his native town and Alexandria and then went to Athens. He became librarian at Alexandria, and improved the science of mathe matical geography, which he reduced to sys tem; but he gained.his greatest renown by his investigations of the size of the earth, his esti mate of the circumference of which was sur prisingly near the truth. He wrote also on chronology, grammar, philosophy, literature, history and the drama, and was considered no mean poet. He rendered much service to as tronomy and first observed the obliquity of the ecliptic. He is said to have starved himself to death after becoming blind. The extant frag ments of his writings were collected by Bern hardy in his 'Eratosthenica' (1822) ; his geo graphical fragments were published by Berger in 1880.
His commentary on (of Plato) seems to have been highly valued in his day, and his philosophical dialogues became, as they were intended, popular. His 'On the Old Comedy,' which treated of the foremost comic poets in 12 or more books, was looked upon as a really great work. In it he dealt with the works of the poets and the general life and management of the theatre. He may be said to have been the father of exact chronology since he endeavored to ascertain the dates of the principal events in history, politics and lit erature from the fall of Troy to his own day. In his (Katasterismoi) he deals, in an interest ing manner, with the relation existing between the popular Greek mythology and the constella tions. In his 'Geography,' issued in three books, he made the first known attempt to treat the subject scientifically, historically and ex perimentally. He wrote two books on mathe matics, which have not survived him, and he worked out a "sieve" to discover all prime numbers.
geographischen Fragmente des Eratosthenis) (Leipzig 1870) ; Bernhardy, (Eratosthenica) (Berlin 1822) ; Christ-Schmidt, 'Geschichte der griechischen Litteratur) (Munich 1911) • Hillier, (Eratosthe nis Carminum Reliqum) (Leipzig 1872) ; Maass, (Berlin 1883) ; Olivieri, 'Pseudo-Eratosthenis Catasterismi' (in Mytho graphi Grmci) III, Leipzig 1897) ; Robert, 'Eratosthenis Casasterismorum Reliquiz (Ber lin 1878) ; Schaubach, (Katasterismoi) (1795) ; Seidel, 'Geographical Fragments of Eratos thenes' (1799) ; Stiehle, 'Zu den Fragmenten des Eratosthenes' (in Philologus, supplement ary, Vol. 2, Gottingen 1863) ; Susemihl, 'Ges chichte der griechischen Litteratur an der Alexandrinerzeit' (Leipzig 1892).
ERANZO, Catalina de, Spanish American heroine: b. San Sebastian, Viscaya, 10 Feb. 1585; d. Cuitaxtla, near Orizaba, Mexico, 1650. The daughter of a good family of Biscay, she was placed at an early age in a Dominican convent of her native city with a view to entering on a religious state. Soon she attracted attention by her originality of character and her passionate love of liberty. In consequence of a dispute with one of her superiors, Catalina, on 18 May 1607, being then a novice, she scaled the walls and escaped to the woods, where, subsisting on herbs and roots, she remained three days and in that time trans formed her garb into that of a man. Pro
ceeding to Vittoria she found employment as an amanuensis. Thereafter she wandered over a great part of Spain, being employed many times in divers occupations usually reserved to the male sex. After some years she embarked on a Spanish vessel bound for America as a mem ber of the crew. On arrival in the New World she deserted and secured employment with a rich merchant, who later made her administrator of his affairs. After many adventures in which she managed successfully to conceal her sex she enlisted as a soldier and won distinction fight ing against the natives, winning the grade of ensign. Her disposition led her into many scrapes, principally duels, in which she was not always victorious. More than once she slew her opponents in duels and in quarrels and twice she was reprieved after sentence of death had been imposed on her. Being gravely wounded in a quarrel at Cuzco, Catalina believed herself to be dying and longed to reveal her sex_ She revealed the secret to the priest who visited her. She afterward met Bishop Augustin de Carvajal to whom she related the story of her life, telling him she was willing to submit to examination by a committee of matrons, adding that she still preserved her purity. It was proved by the matrons that she had spoken the truth. Catalina lived in a convent in 1620-22, then traveled to New Granada, and sailed for Spain, arriving in Cadiz, 1 Nov. 1624. Her fame had preceded her and she was enthusi astically received. In Madrid she was received by Philip IV, who granted her a life pension of 800 crowns. She journeyed to Rome, where she narrated her eventful history to Pope Urban VIII, who gave her permission to dress in male attire for the rest of her life. Returning to Spain she resided in Seville until 1630. when she set out for Mexico, where she served in the army for some years and afterward with a string of pack-mules began trade between Mexico City and Vera Cruz. She was buried at Orizaba. In 1653 the history of her life, written by herself, was published in Mexico. This autobiography under the editorship of Joaquin Maria Ferrer was issued at Paris in 1829 under the title (Historia de la Monja Alferez, etc., escrita por ella misma con notas y piezas justi ficativas.) ERB, Wilhelm Heinrich, German neuro pathologist : b. Winnweiler, Bavaria, 1840. He received his education at the universities of Heidelberg, Erlangen and Munich. From 1880 to 1883 he was professor of special pathology and therapy at Leipzig, thereafter removing in the same capacity to the University of Heidel berg, where he was appointed clinical director. He has made extended investigations on electro therapy and neuropathology. His published works include 'Handbuch der Krankheiten der peripheren cerebro-spinalen Nerven) (2d ed., 1876) ; 'Handbuch der KranIcheiten des Rticken marks und des verlingerten Marks) (2d ed., 1878) ; 'Handbuch der Elektrotherapie) (Eng lish trans. by Putzel, 1883) ; (Ueber die neuere Entwicklung der Nervenpathologie) (1880) ; (Dystrophia Muscularis Progressiva) (1891) ; cGesammelte Abhandlungen) (1910).