ESCOBEDO, Mariano, ba-do, Mexican soldier, popularly known as big lugs, on account of his enor mous ears : b. Dos Arroyos, New Leon, 12 Jan. 1827; d. Tacubaya, 22 May 1902. When the war between Mexico and the United States broke out he was a muleteer in charge of a string of pack mules belonging to his father. He converted his muleteers into a band of guer rillas, attacked small detachments of the Ameri can troops wherever he found them and took part in the battles of Palo Alto and Resaca. Juarez commissioned him colonel in 1859. In 1861, upon the establishment of Juarez' govern ment in the City of Mexico, Escobedo was made a brigadier-general and sent in pursuit of the Clerical forces under Marquez and Mejia, but was surprised, taken prisoner after an heroic defense, sentenced to be shot, but escaped and returned to Juarez. He took a prominent part in the war against the French which followed the intervention of Napoleon III in Mexican affairs. He repulsed them at Puebla, 5 May 1862, took part in the long siege of that place and when it was captured by the French, 17 May 1863, was taken prisoner, but succeeded in escaping. When Maximilian's empire was es tablished, Escobedo took up his headquarters in Texas, secretly purchased arms and ammunition in New Orleans, 1£365, organized and equipped a force of Mexican refugees, American negroes and ex-Confederate soldiers, led them into Mexico; captured the Imperial garrison at Mon terey, November 1865, and swept everything be fore him. Juarez appointed him commander-in
chief of the Army of the North; he continued his victorious course until all the chief cities were in the hands of the republicans and finally besieged and defeated the Emperor IA Queretaro, 15 May 1866. It is said that Maximilian offered his word of honor to Escobedo, on surrender ing his sword, to leave the country at once if conducted to the nearest port; but Escobedo refused, probably on orders from Juarez, who ordered a court-inartial, and the Emperor was condemned and executed. In 1874 Escobedo quelled an uprising against the government of Juarez, but was unsuccessful in putting down the revolution started by General Porfirio Diaz. He fled to Texas, issued a manifesto against Diaz, of whom hc became a close friend and strong supporter later, and, later during his administra tion, president of the supreme military court of justice 1882-83. He also held other import ant offices of trust under Diaz.