GEORGIA, the last settled of the 13 origi nal States of the American Union; bounded on the north by North Carolina and Tennessee, on the northeast by South Carolina, on the east by South Carolina and the Atlantic Ocean, on the south by Florida and on the west by Ala bama; capital, Atlanta; area, 59,475 square miles, of which 495 are water.
The northeastern part of Georgia is traversed by that part of the Appa lachian chain of mountains known as the Blue Ridge, which in Georgia has an altitude of from 3,000 to 5,000 feet above sea-level. After running one third the distance across the State, it terminates abruptly, but appears again in short ranges and detached peaks. Northwest Georgia, the limestone region, embracing about 3,600 square miles, has an altitude ranging from between 600 and 700 to 2,500 feet above sea level. About 6,000 square miles of northern Georgia are above the altitude of 1,000 feet. About 20 miles to the west of the Blue Ridge lies the Cohutta Range, a continuation of the range known in Tennessee as the Unaka. The Cohutta has an altitUde of 3,000 feet above sea level with an abrupt escarpment toward the valley of the Oostenaula on the west and then continues into Alabama in a low elevation called Dugover Mountain. To the northwest are Lookout and Sand Mountain ranges, which with their table-lands constitute a part of the Alleghany range, which, like the Blue Ridge, belongs to the great Appalachian system.
High Point, the loftiest part of Lookout Mountain, has an elevation of 2,408 feet. Its northeastern spur, called Pigeon Mountain, has an elevation of from 1,800 to 2,000 feet above the sea, its highest point rising to 2,331 feet. Another spur of Lookout, called Round Moun tain, has an elevation of over 2,200 feet. Tay lor's Ridge and its prolongation, called the White Oak Mountains, rise to an elevation of from 1,300 to 1,500 feet above sea-level. A little farther south. Rocky Face Ridge, with an elevation of from 1,500 to 1,700 feet, forms the eastern watershed of Chickamauga Creek (or river, as it is sometimes called), which flows through the valley at an elevation of 900 feet above the sea. There are several detached
peaks, among which the most noted are Pine, Lost and Kennesaw Mountains, the last named with its double peak rising to the height of 1,809 feet. In De Kalb County, 14 miles east of the city of Atlanta, in a comparatively level country, Stone Mountain, a vast mass of gran ite, rises to the height of 1,686 feet.
One of the most prominent features of north east Georgia is the Blue Ridge chain of moun tains, already mentioned. Some of the peaks of this chain rise to an elevation of 5,000 feet. The following is a list of the most noted of the mountain peaks of Georgia with their height above the level of the sea: Sitting Bull (mid dle summit of Nantahela), in Towns County, 5,046 feet; Mona (east summit of Nantahela), 5,039 feet; Enota, in Towns County, 4,797 feet; Rabun Bald, in Rabun County, 4,718 feet; Blood, in Union County, 4,468 feet; Tray, in Habersham County, 4,403 feet; Cohutta, in Fannin County, 4,155 feet; Dome, in Towns County, 4,042 feet; Grassy, in Pickens County, 3,290 feet; Tallulah, in Habersham County, 3,172 feet; Yona, in White County, 3,167 feet. In all the mountain section of Georgia are charming valleys abounding in very productive lands. The most noted are Cedar, Texas, Broomtown and Vann's valleys in northwest Georgia, and Nacoochee (Evening Star) and Santee valleys in the northeast section of the State. Among the interesting features of northwest Georgia are numerous caves. Har din's Cave, near Kingston, has chambers 20 to 30 feet high. Middle Georgia is the most thickly settled section of the State. With the exception of two mountains, this region varies in, altitude from 180 to 500 feet, and in a few instances to 1,000 feet. Lands too steep for the plow are seldom found in middle Georgia.
South Georgia embraces more than half the area of the State and extends from the south ern limit of middle Georgia to Florida and the Atlantic coast. Its altitude ranges from 100 to 500 feet. About 3,000 square miles of the coastal region have an elevation of 100 feet.