GMUND, Wurttemberg, town in the Rems Valley district, 30 miles southeast of Stutt gart. It has ruins of its former splendor as an imperial city. It contains a 14th century church, a- monastery now used as a prison, a gymnasium, trade school and teachers training school. It has manufactures of iron and wooden articles, cigars, flour, chronometers, jewelry, etc. It was an independent city until 1803. Pop. 21,000.
GNADENHtJ'TTEN, Massacre at. For the westward retreat of the Delawares, and their partial conversion to Christianity by the Moravians, see under their name. In 1772 their Great Council settled the Christian Indians on the Muskingum in three villages, Salem, Schonbrunn and Gnadenhiitten (Tabernacles of Grace), the latter being that of the Delawares. Through the Revolution these Indians as a body took no part in war fare, quietly cultivating their farms; but some of the younger ones joined the war-bands, which forced the Moravian villages to give them supplies and shelter. The whites were wrought to frenzy by these atrocities, in which they accused the Christian Indians of being secret participants; and in 1781 a success ful foray against the hostiles was only pre vented from involving the Moravians by the efforts of Colonel Brodhead. But the first blow against them was struck by the wild In dians and British. In the fall of 1781Capt. Matthew Elliott, under orders from the British commandant at Detroit, with a body of white rangers and a miscellaneous horde of Indians front a half-dozen different tribes, forced them to leave their villages, which were half de stroyed; the missionaries were taken to Detroit, and the Christian Indians left on the Sandusky plains, where the wild Indians would have massacred them but for the English. A few es
caped and returned to the villages; they were captured by the Americans under. Williamson, and taken to Fort Pitt, )vhose commandant, Gibson, their firm friend and attempted pro tector, sent them back to the villages unharmed. During the winter the rest suffered much from cold and hunger around Sandusky, and by the spring of 1782 some 150 had returned to the villages. Meantime the fiendish Indian outrages were going on; the borderers accused the Mora vians of being privy to them, and denounced Gibson and Williamson- for letting them go; and after a woman and child had been impaled alive by an Indian gang, who afterward re freshed' themselves among the Moravians, the whites formed a party of near a hundred under Williamson to exterminate the latter. In March they gathered those in Salem and Gnadenhiitten into two houses at the latter— those at Schott brunn had been warned and escaped— under promises of good treatment; a council was held, at which 18 protested against the contemplated murder and withdrew, taking an Indian lad with them; the rest went in and killed the 96 inmates, after the latter had prayed and kissed each other farewell, only two other 'boys es caping. The best men of the borders denounced the cowardly butchery in unsparing language.