Home >> Encyclopedia Americana, Volume 14 >> Coefficients Of Cubical Expansion to A Hero Ofour >> Haxo System of Fortifica_P1

Haxo System of Fortifica Tion

yards, reduit, guns, front, ditch, ravelin and rear

Page: 1 2

HAXO SYSTEM OF FORTIFICA TION. A bastion system of fortification in troduced by Baron Francis Nicolas Benoit Haxo, a prominent French military engineer, employed by Napoleon, and later commanded at the siege of Antwerp in 1832. Casemated batteries of the system have earthen parapets along their front and are provided with arches mantled with earth. Apertures in front of the guns open into embrasures formed in extension of the parapet at these points. Being open in the rear the free circulation of air obviates the inconvenience of confined smoke.

The siege of this system of fortification is calculated to last 50 days and there are five distinct periods of breaching batteries: (1) Against the reduit of the salient place of arms and the ravelin. (2) Against the reduit of the re-entering place of arms, the coupures and the reduit of ravelin. (3) Against the bas tionet and the counter-guard. (4) Against the retrenchment. (5) Against the bastion. The front is 360 yards long. The perpendicular is only 40 yards, and the faces 72 yards. The flanks are perpendicular to the lines of defense. The bastions contain interior retrenchments en tirely separated from the rear by a ditch. A chemin-des-rondes surmounts the scarp of the enciente. The tenaille is not revetted and it has flanks that can mount three guns. The main ditch is 20 yards wide. The ravelin is made very salient, with a casemated traverse in cap ital, and coupures cut across its faces. In rear is a reduit of the ordinary outline, and behind is a casemated caponiere of bastionet, the roof of which carries 10 guns. The counterscarp of the main ditch is produced to within 10 yards of this bastionet, and in front of it slants a glacis, which closes the ditch of the ravelin and that of the reduit. The bastionet sweeps the interior glacis and co-operates with the flanks of the inner works to impede the construction of the counter-batteries.

The Haxo Casemate is a work built inside the parapet, arched and covered with earth, opening in the rear to the terreplein. The guns are protected fiom the enemy's fire, and can be entirely hidden by masking the embrasures.

HAY, John Milton, American statesman: b. Salem, Ind., 8 Oct. 1838; d. near Newbury, N. H., 1 July 1905. He was graduated from Brown University in 1858, and soon after leav ing college entered the office of his uncle, Mil ton Hay, a former partner of Abraham Lin coln, in Springfield, Ill., to study law. In 1861

he was admitted to the bar, but did not prac tise; he took an active part in the campaign preceding Lincoln's first election and in 1861 went with Lincoln to Washington as one of the President's, private secretaries. During the Civil War period he was also Lincoln's ad jutant and aide-de-camp, and served in the field for some time under Generals Hunter and Gill more. He was brevetted lieutenant and lieu tenant-colonel.

After the death of Lincoln he went to Paris as secretary of legation, remaining there till 1867, when he returned to the United States. In the summer of the same year he became chargi-d'affaires at Vienna. After holding this post for a year, during which he had some op portunities for European travels, he resigned and returned to the United States, but was sent almost immediately to Madrid as first sec retary of legation, where he remained till 1870.

During his service abroad he gained a valu able knowledge not only of the language and literature of the chief European nations, but also of foreign diplomacy and politics. On his return to the United States he took up journal ism, was for a time on the editorial staff of the New York Tribune, and published, mostly in its columns, his 'Pike County Ballads.> After about five years of service on the Tribune he married a daughter of Amasa Stone of Cleveland and went to that city to live. He devoted himself mainly to literary work, and occasionally took part in politics, writing and speaking in presidential campaigns. In 1879 he accepted an offer from President Hayes to become first assistant Secretary of State under Mr. Evans. He held this position till the end of the Hayes administration in March 1881; then he took charge of the Tribune during Whitelaw Reid's absence in Europe, and con ducted it with marked success through the try ing period of Garfield's assassination and death. The period 1::1-97 was devoted to the business interests of his wife's family, to travel and especially to the writing, with T. G. Nicolay, of their monumental biography of Abraham Lincoln. During these years he also found more leisure to devote to other literary work, the result of which in the form of poems and a few prose articles was published in various magazines.

Page: 1 2