HYTHE, kith, England, a market town and municipal and parliamentary borough of Kent, about 70 miles southeast of London. served by the South-Eastern and Chatham Railway. It is situated not far from the sea, Romney Marsh intervening, and is a popular resort. Hythe is connected with Sandgate, three miles distant by a sea-wall and parade, and an electric tramway along the shore front. On a height near the town is the interesting church of Saint Leonard, of late Norman style. In its vaults there are several human skulls and hones, supposed to be the remains of Norsemen or Danes killed in battle near the town in 456. The cemetery near the church contains the re mains of Lionel Lukin (b. 1742; d. 1834), the inventor of the life-boat. The guildhall of Hythe was founded in 1794. Saint Bartholo mew's Hospital was founded in 1336 by Haimo, Bishop of 'Rochester, while Saint John's Hos pital is still older, the date of its foundation as a lepers' home being unknown. It was remod eled and reconstructed in 1802. In 1854 the government established a musketry school at Hythe, which has far outgrown its original proportions. Not far away from Hythe is Lympe, now three miles inland, which is thought to have been the original harbor, which • as one of the Cinque Ports, enjoyed special privileges. The course of the estuary is easily traceable for all the distance between Hythe and Lympe. The latter place has the ruins of a Roman fortress and modern excavations have uncovered many other Roman remains. Great parts of the walls of the Roman fortress still stand, together with a well-preserved circular watch-tower. Some of the material of the Roman Portus Lemanis were used ip the early English church of Lympe, the tower of which was built by Lanfranc. Saltwood Castle nearby is of great historic interest, being very old even in the time of Richard II. In 1026 it was given
to the See of Canterbury; was escheated to the Crown after the murder of Thomas i Beckett, and again given to Canterbury by King John. The archbishops resided there until the reign of Henry VIII. In 1882 it was restored as a residence. Hythe, variously spelled Heya, Hethe, Hithe, i.e., landing-place, was already of importance as a seaport in Saxon times. Half den granted it to Christ Chursh, Canterbury. In the Domesday Survey the borough is given as part of the archbishop's domain, and the bailiff of the town was his appointee. It was one of the Cinque Ports even 'before the Con quest ; its liberties and privileges were con firmed by King John in 1205 as they were under Edward the Confessor. These privileges were again confirmed in Magna Carta, and subse quently by general charters from various kings down to James II. In return for these privi leges — freedom from toll, with its sisters of the Cinque Ports furnished 57 vessels for the service of the sovereign, and of these five were furnished by Hythe. In 1365 it sent four members to Parliament, this being the first time it had any representation there. The gov ernment of the port until 1574 was vested in twelve jurats; but in that year Queen Elizabeth incorporated it under the title of "mayor, jurats, and commonalty of Hythe.° On 29 June privilege was granted to hold a fair for the sale of fish. The filling up of the harbor with sand gradually choked off the sea-borne com merce of the town and it declined considerably in importance. The waterworks are the prop erty of the municipality. Pop. 6,500.