JACKSON (Miss.), Battle of. After the battle of Raymond (q.v.), 12 May 1863, General Grant, having provided for the safety of his rear and left from the direction of Vicksburg, turned McPherson's and Sherman's corps and part of McClernand's on Jackson, 12 miles northeast of Raymond, to capture the place without delay. On the 13th McPherson moved from Raymond to Clinton, and then turned east on Jackson. Sherman moved through Ray mond to Mississippi Springs on the 13th, and that night arranged with McPherson that both columns should arrive at Jackson about the same hour next day. McClernand closed up to Raymond and sent one division to Clinton to support McPherson. Gen. J. E. Johnston had arrived at Jackson on the evening of the 13th and, hearing next morning of the Union ap proach on the Raymond and Clinton roads, ordered Gregg's brigade to take position on the first-named road, and Walker's brigade on the latter, with instructions to each to delay the Union advance as long as possible, to give time for the removal of public property from the city. The combined strength of Gregg and Walker was about 6,000 men. About 9 A.M. of the 14th McPherson's advance on the Clinton road came upon Walker's pickets and drove them back upon the main body, posted in works on the crest of, a semi-circular ridge miles west of Jackson, the front,covered by a marshy creek lined with dense willows, and artillery commanding the bridge over the creek. At the end of nearly two hours Crocker's division of three brigades was deployed in line, with one brigade of Logan's in reserve. At 11 A.M. the skirmishers advanced to the creek and were checked, upon which the entire division went forward, drove in Walker's skirmishers, and advanced over the open ground beyond the creek, meeting a stout resistance; but Walker's men soon retreated, abandoning seven guns.
They were pushed more than a mile by Crocker; but his men fell into some disorder, and were finally brought to a stand by artillery posted in an inner line of works close to the town. While Crocker was reforming, Walker made his es cape to the Canton road. Crocker's loss was 265 killed and wounded. On the Raymond road Sherman encountered Gregg and, by a flank movement, compelled him to abandon his entire line and ten guns, with the loss of nearly 200 prisoners and 81 in killed and wounded. Sherman's loss was 32. Johnston retreated northward on the Canton road. Mc Pherson and Sherman entered Jackson be tween 3 and 4 P.M. ; Sherman was left in the city to destroy the railroads, bridges, factories, arsenals and everything valuable. On the morn ing of 15th Grant turned the rest of his army west, defeated Pemberton at the battle of Champion's Hill (q.v.) on the 16th, drove him across the Big Black on the 17th, and began the siege of Vicksburg. The Union loss at Jackson was 42 killed and 251 wounded. The Confederates make their loss less than 400, but Sherman estimated it at 845 killed, wounded and missing. Consult 'War of Rebellion — Official Records' (Vol. XXIV, Washington 11389-1901) ; Johnston, J. E., 'Narrative of Military Operations> (New York 1877) ; Sher man, (Vol. I, New York 1875) ; The Century Company's 'Battles and Leaders of the Civil War> (Vol. III, New York 1887 88).