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Encyclopedia Americana, Volume 17

1 Libel
Libel, (1) A Defamation Of A Person, With Malice Expressed Or Implied, Made Public By Means Of Writing, Printing Or Pictures, Calcu Lated To Provoke Him To Anger, Or Expose Him To Hatred, Ridicule Or Contempt. Spoken Words, However Opprobrious Or Injurious, Do Not Amount To Libel But Are Classed ...

10 Cattle And Meat
10. Cattle And Meat Industry In Latin America. The World Demand For Meat, And Particularly Beef, Has Directed At Tention To Latin America As The Most Promising Field For Its Production. Locally, There Are But Few Places In Either The Northern Or Southern Group Where Cattle Have Not Been Raised ...

10 Lorenz
Lorenz, 10 Rents, Adolf, Austrian Ortho Pedic Surgeon: B. 1854. He Was Graduated From The University Of Vienna In 1880, And Worked As An Assistant Under Theodor Billroth In Vienna. On The Advice Of The Latter He Be Gan Specialization In Orthopedic Surgery, And After Years Of Study Developed His ...

11 Hides And Leather
11. Hides And Leather In Latin America. During War Conditions, The Price Of -hides And Leather Became Unprecedented. But Aside From War, The Natural World Demand Is Increasing Faster Than The Production. During The Decade, 1890-99, Inclusive, The Average Price Of Hemlock Tanned Sole Leather Was $0.1939 Per Pound. At ...

1141 Lyell
Lyell, 1141, Sir Charles, English Geolo Gist: B. Kinnordy, Near Kirriemuier, Forfar Shire, Scotland, 14 Nov. 1797; D. London, 22 Feb. 1875. He Was Educated At Oxford, And On Leaving Oxford He Studied And Passed For The Bar. His Life Was Almost Wholly Given, How Ever, To Geology. His First ...

13 Fruit Trade Of
13. Fruit Trade Of Latin Amer Ica. The Most Impressive Fact In The History Of The Cultivation Of Valuable Fruits In The Latin American Tropics Is Not That So Much Has Been Accomplished But That So Much Still Remains To Be Achieved. The Past Success Amply Justifies A Confident Outlook ...

14 Leghorn
Leghorn, 14 /horn Or Ft-horn' (it. Livorno, Le-vor'n6.), Italy, A Walled City And The Third Commercial Port Of Italy, In Tuscany, On The Mediterranean. It Is The Capital Of The Province Of Leghorn, Which Has An Area Of 133 Square Miles And A Population Of About 135, 765. It Is ...

14 Rice Production In
14. Rice Production In Latin America. The Use Of Rice As An Article Of Food Is More Uniformly Widespread In Latin America Than In The United States. It Is The Mainstay Of The Laboring Classes, And, By Itself Or Incorporated With Other Foods, Is Found, As Well, On The Tables ...

15 Rubber Industry In
15. Rubber Industry In Latin America. Latin America Holds The Cradle Of The Rubber Industries Of The World, In The Southwestern Section Of The Great Basin Of The Amazon, Where The ((black Hevee Is At Its Best, And Brazil, Peru, Bolivia And Ecuador Share In Providing Its Most Favored Habitat. ...

16 Sugar Industry In
16. Sugar Industry In Latin America. The Cane Sugar Production Of The World For The Past Few Years Has Averaged Ap Proximately 10,280,000 Tons Or 22,670,400,000 Pounds. Of This Quantity The Countries Of Latin Including Ncluding Any Foreign Posses Sions In America — Produce About 4,138,000 Tons Or 9,124,290,000 Pounds, ...

17 Tobacco Industry In
17. Tobacco Industry In Latin America. The Domestic Pro Duction Of Tobacco In The Argentine Republic Is Used Exclusively In The Domestic Cigar And Cigarette Factories. Due To Its Medium And Inferior Cfuality It Is Used For The Cheaper Grades Of Consumption, Either By Itself Or Mixed In Proportions Of ...

18 Wool Industry In
18. Wool Industry In Latin 'america. The Wool Industry Is Subject To Climatic Influences, It Being Found That, While Sheep Thrive In The Tropic And Semi-tropic Zones, Nature, By Its Law Of Compensation, Relieves Them Of The Necessity Of Clothing Themselves To Withstand The Cold And Their Wool Loses Those ...

1914 19 5 Latin America
5. Latin America And The World War, 1914-19. The Attitude Of The Latin-american Countries As A Whole Toward The Conflict In Europe Can Be Fully Appreciated Only When We Examine Separately The Record Of Each Country In This Great Class During The Years Of The War. It Will, Therefore, Be ...

2 Civilization Of Latin
2. Civilization Of Latin Amer Ica. Latin-american Civilization From An Anglo-saxon Point Of View May Be Found Wanting In Many Respects, But The Life And Happiness Of Nations, The Ideals And Hopes Of Their Peoples, Their Legislation And Institutions, Are Not To Be Found Ready Made, But Have To Be ...

3 Education In Latin
3. Education In Latin America. General And Historical.— Education In Latin America Is Dominated By Two Forces. One Is Historical And Concerns Higher And Pro Fessional Studies. The Spanish Colonists Estab Lished Universities Soon After Their Occupation Of The Country. Santo Domingo, 1538; Lima, 1551; Mexico, 1553; Bogota, 15'72; Cordoba ...

4 Latin American Literature
4. Latin American Literature, The Literature Of The Various Nations And Peoples On The American Continents Speaking The Latin Languages, In This Wide Sense The Term Em Braces The Spanish, French And Portuguese Countries And, Therefore, Includes The Literary Productions Of French Canada And Other French Colonial Possessions In America, ...

6 Transportation And Com
6. Transportation And Com Munication In Latin America. Railways.—although Several Countries Lay Claim To Having The Oldest Railway In South America It Appears That The First Road To Be Actually Opened For Service Was A Line Five Miles Long, Finished In British Guiana In 1848. In The Next Year A ...

7 Industrial Development And
7. Industrial Development And Commercial Products Of Latin America. Latin America Is The Most Promising Of The Undeveloped Sections Of The World. The North Temperate Zone Has Been Peopled And Developed. Europe With 3,875,000 Square Miles Has 465,000,000 People, Or 120 Per Square Mile. Asia With 17,000,000 Square Miles Has ...

8 Mineral Industry In
8. Mineral Industry In Latin America. The Known Mineral Riches Of Latin America Exceed Those Of Any Other Part Of The Globe So Far Explored. The Entire Sup Ply Of The World's Bismuth Comes From Bolivia; By Far The Largest Supply Of Thorium Is Fur Nished By The Monazite Sands ...

9 Cotton Industry In
9. Cotton Industry In Latin America. Cotton Production In The Latin American Republics Has Reached Important Pro Portions, The Average Crop Now Being 385,000, 000 Pounds In Those Countries. Brazil Leads With An Annual Crop Of 207,000,000 Pounds. The Mexican Crop Averages 100,000,000 Pounds, The Peruvian 62,000,000 Pounds, And That ...

Acetylene
Acetylene.* Chemical Properties. C,hr- Carbon 92.25 Per Cent, Hydrogen 7.75 By Weight. At Atmospheric Pressure And 60° F., The Volume Of One Pound Of Acetylene Is 14.53 Cubic Feet. Acetylene Requires 11.92 Volumes Of Air Or 2.5 Volumes Of Oxygen For Its Com Plete Combustion. Acetylene Is A Colorless, Tasteless ...

America
America, A General Term Given To The Countries In South And Central America; Especially Those Whose In Habitants Come Of Latin Linguistic Stock. These Include Inhabitants Of Mexico And Certain Islands Of The West Indies. The Term Hispanic America Has Also Come Into Use, Embracing Both The Portuguese-american Inhabitants Of ...

Ammonia
Ammonia, Anhydrous (nh,).—priest Ley, In 1774, Was The First To Isolate Ammonia, Having Collected It Over Mercury. Scheele, In The Same Year, Discovered That It Contained Ni Trogen. Its True Composition Was Determined By Berthollet In 1785. Liquid Ammonia, However, Was First Obtained By Faraday, In 1823, By Warming The ...

Argentina
Argentina.- The Great Level Plains Of Ar Gentina, With Their Wealth Of Agricultural And Pastoral Products, Have Made The River Plata Region The Centre Of Railway Expansion In South America. From Buenos Aires A Great Network Of Lines Stretches Out To The North, West And South, Connecting Practically Every Important ...

Argon
Argon, Symbol A (or Ar), A Gaseous Element, Was First Actually Obtained In 1785 By Cavendish Who Observed That °not More Than 1/120th Part° Of The Atmosphere Remains After Treating The Air For Removal Of Oxygen And Nitrogen. Attention Was Not Called To This Statement By Cavendish Until 1894 When ...

Art And Music Literature
Literature, Art And Music, Influence Of The World War On. All Wars Have A Profound Influence On The Life And Thought Of The Nations — They Either Sterilize When Disasters Are Overwhelming Or Awaken To New Energy When Conditions Are More Favorable. The Inspiration Of Any Momentous And Long Continued ...

Asia
Asia. The Early History Of Libraries In Japan Is Involved With That Of China And Presents No Important Distinctions. During The Last Quarter Of The 19th Century, However, The Great Transformation Produced In Japan By The Introduction Of Western Ideals And Methods Has Had An Influence Equally Far-reaching Upon The ...

Austria Hungary
Austria-hungary Owing To The Fact That Austria Has Remained Firm In Her Allegiance To The Roman Catholic Church, The Library Situation There Is Rendered Interesting By The Great Number Of Monastic Collections Remaining Intact. From The View Point Of The Bibliographer They Are Of Immense Interest, Some Of Them Having ...

Benjamin W Wells
Benjamin W. Wells. Are Inventions For The Preservation Of Life In Cases Of Shipwreck. In The Mercantile Marine And Passenger Ships There Are Now Life-belts For Every Passenger And Every Member Of The Crew. Buoys Are Car Ried On The Bridge And At The Stern Of Most Ships In The ...

Benjamin W Wells Lesage
Benjamin W. Wells. Lesage, Alain Rene, French Novelist And Playwright: B. Sarzeau, Near Vannes, 8 May 1668; D. Boulogne-sur-mer, 17 Nov. 1747. He Studied Law In Paris And Be Came An Advocate, But Soon Afterward Turned All His Attention To Literature. He Made Many Fruitless Efforts After Recognition And Success, ...

Blow Opt
Blow-opt Cool—. A Plug-cock At The Bottom Of The Fire Box, By The Opening Of Which The Boiler Is Blown Of Or Emptied. The Pipe In The Smoke-box Connected With The Blower-cock In The Cab. By Blowing Steam Through It, • Draft Is Produced When The Locomotive Is At Rest. ...

Canada
Canada. There Are Few Records Of Collections Of Books In Canada Prior To The Establishment Of The British Colonies. Le Moyne D'iberville Is Said To Have Gathered Together All The Works On The New World And Carried Them With Him On His Expeditions, But What Became Of Them Is Unknown. ...

Capital Invested In Liquor
Capital Invested In Liquor Manufacture. Nearly All The Liquor Consumed In The United States Is Made In The Country. For Several Years Prior To The European War The United States Did Import About $10,000,000 A Year Worth Of Foreign Wines, $7,000,000 Worth Of Dis Tilled Liquors And $3,000,000 Worth Of ...

Carbon Dioxide
Carbon Dioxide. The Popular Belief That Poisoning From Carbon Dioxide Occurs In Unventilated And Overcrowded Rooms Is A Mis Taken One. Results Observed On Such Occasions Are Due In Large Part To The Reduction In The Amount Of Oxygen Present And Not To The In Crease Of Carbon Dioxide, Which ...

Central America
Central America.- In Central America Through Connections From Ocean To Ocean Are Afforded In Three Countries, Panama, Costa Rica And Guatemala (considering Panama A Part Of Central America). On These And Other Central American Lines The Traveler Will Find Some Of The Finest Scenery Attending Railway Travel Anywhere In North ...

Chlorine
Chlorine. Chlorine, Cl, Atomic Weight 35.4, At Ordinary Temperature And Pressure Is A Gas Of Greenish Yellow Color And Has An Irritat Ing And Pungent Odor. Tice Specific Gravity Of The Gas Is About 2.48. Underpressure Chlorine Is Easily Liquefied. The Specific Gravity Of The Liquid At 15° C. Is ...

Colombia
Colombia.- In The North-coast Countries Of Colombia And Venezuela Railroad Building Has Made Little Progress, Partly Because Of The Mountainous Character Of The Country And Partly Because Of The Fact That Each Country Is But Sparsely Inhabited. In Colombia The Main Arteries Of Travel Are Still The Rivers, Particularly The ...

Commit
Commit Pounds (132 Lbs.) Valueprance (1913) ,293.7 77,81 $715.1 Prance (1915) 1, 99 Germany (1913) 7,653.182 57,979 1,844,262 Germany (1915) Great Britain (1913) 3,321.692 25,164 595,613 Great Britain (1915) 4.068,766 30.824 409.171 United States (1913) 3,715,012 28,144 615,644 United States (191.5) 6,303,693 47.755 668.393 Italy (1913) 621.667 4,711 97,445 Italy ...