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Leo Ix

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LEO IX, Saint (13Rtmo), Pope (1049 54) : b. Egisheim, near Colmar, on the borders of Alsace, 21 June 1002; d. Rome, 19 April 1054. He came of a noble family and through his father was second cousin to Emperor Con rad II. He was educated at Toul, became canon there and in 1026 bishop. He rendered valuable political services to his cousin Con rad II, and to Henry III, and became famous for his wide learning and his zeal in correcting abuses. Upon the death of Pope Damascus II, in 1048, Bruno was elected Pope and was consecrated as Leo IX, 12 Feb. 1049. He put down an effort of ex-Pope Benedict IX to seize the papal chair, and immediately set about a reorganization of financial affairs. At the Easter synod of 1049 he initiated his warfare on two notorious evils, simony and clerical in continence, continuing his efforts at later synods held in Rome and in the course of various progresses he made through Italy, Germany and France. In 1053 he moved against the Nor mans in Italy with an army composed of Italian and German volunteers, but was defeated at Astagnum near Civitella 18 June 1053 and was taken prisoner by the Norman leader, Robert Guiscard. He was confined at Benevento for 10 months, but treated with the utmost respect, and upon falling ill he was permitted to re turn to Rome where he died shortly afterward. His life was distinguished by his purity and strength of purpose. His name day is 19 April. Consult Hunkler, 'Leo der Neunte and seine Zeit> (1851) ; Milman, 'History of Latin Christianity> (Vol. III, 1903) - Mann, 'Lives of the Popes in the Early Middle Ages' (Vols. IV, VI, 1910).

LEO X (GIovANNI DE' MEDICI), Pope (1513 21) : b. Florence, 11 Dec. 1475; d. Rome, 1 Dec. 1521. He was the second son of Lorenzo the Magnificent, and his father had him made a cardinal by Innocent VIII at the age of 13. When the Medici were expelled from Florence, in 1494, he spent some years in travel in Ger many, France and Flanders, and made ac quaintance with many eminent men, returning to Rome in 1503 and devoting himself to science and the fine arts. He was appointed by Julius II legate with the papal army, and in 1512 was taken prisoner by the French at the battle of Ravenna, regaining his liberty only after the evacuation of Milan by the French. In 1513 on the death of Julius II, he was elected Pope, and made his entry into Rome on 11 April, the anniversary of his capture at Ra venna. His pontificate of nine years is one of

the most eventful of modern history, when viewed in relation to great political changes, to the revival of literature and, above all, to the Reformation. He succeeded in putting an end to the dispute between Louis XII and the court of Rome; he continued and brought to a close the Council of the Lateran; and, at a confer ence held at Bologna, concluded a concordat with Francis I of France. In 1517 he created the unexampled number of 31 cardinals, among whom were Cajetan, Campeggio, Trivulzio and other learned and eminent men. He planned a great war against the Turks, and resolved about the same time to complete the church of S'armt Peter at Rome, and in order to raise funds for these schemes he granted to all the faithful, who•.should contribute by their alms, certain indulgences, the preaching of which in Saxony was one of the forces which resulted in the Reformation. Leo published his first bull against Luther in June 1520, and Luther ap pealed to a general council and publicly burned the bull at Wittenberg. A second bull appeared against Luther in January 1521, and the papal anathema was echoed by the doctors of the Sorbonne. At the same period war was re sumed between the Emieror Charles V and Francis I, the Pope allying himself first with Francis and soon after with Charles. As an intelligent patron of literature and the fine arts, he was surrounded with many of the most dis tinguished men of his time. He stimulated the study of Greek and the collection of ancient manuscripts; restored the Roman University and the great Laurentian Library of Florence. His worldliness was regarded with extreme dis favor by the Church, although in matters of be lief and personal moral conduct no criticism was brought against him. But he refused to recognize the serious nature of the dangers threatening the papacy, ignored the urgent need for reforms and, on the whole, was ever the prince rather than the Pope. His good quali ties and many achievements were of a secular instead of a religious nature, and his pontifi cate was regarded as unfortunate for the Church. Consult Roscoe, 'Life and Pontificate of Leo X> (1805) ; Creighton, 'History of the Papacy During the Period of the Reforma tion> (Vols. III-V, 1882-94) ; Niti, 'Leone X e la sua politica> (1892) ; Conforti, 'Leo X ed it suo secolo' (1896).