Home >> Encyclopedia Americana, Volume 17 >> Lemurs to Lied Von Der Glocke >> Leo Vi

Leo Vi

der, operas, geschichte, naples, die, comic, german and vols

LEO VI (the PHILOSOPHER), Byzantine emperor: b. 865; d. 911. He was the son of Basilius, the Macedonian, and in 886 succeeded to the throne jointly with his younger brother, Alexander, who, however, took no share in gov erning. His reign was marked by various wars with barbarian states, including the Hungarians, and Saracens. Thessalonica was sacked and practically destroyed and Sicily and lower Italy were overrun. Leo VI appears to have possessed small claim to his surnames, the "Wises and the "Philosopher.* He banished his early tutor, Photius, patriarch of Constanti nople, upon his succession to the throne; and upon his own excommunication from the Greek Church, following his fourth marriage — an act forbidden by the Church — he deposed Nicho las, the patriarch who had pronounced the ban upon him. His authorship of the literary pro ductions credited to him has been questioned. Among the works bearing his name are (Oracula,) a poem; (Basilica,) the completion of a digest of laws begun by his father; and an important treatise on military tactics, believed by some authorities to be the work of Leo III (Leyden 1612). Consult Gib bon, (Decline and Fall of the Roman Bury, (Later Roman Empire) (1887) ; Oman, 'Byzantine Empire) (1892).

LEO, Friedrich, German classical philolo gist: b. Regenwalde, 10 July 1851; d. 1914. He was educated at the universities of Gottingen and Bonn, and was afterward professor at the universities of Kid, Rostock, Strassburg, Bonn and For many years he edited the philological journal Hermes. He also edited 'Seneca Traga-dift) (1878-79) ; (Venantii For tursati Opera Poetica) (1881), and was author of (Plautinische Forschungen) (1895) ; (Die griechisch-romische Biographic nach ihrer lit erarischen Form) (1901) ; (Saturnische Vers) (1905) • (Geschichte der .Riimischen Literatur: Erste Amid, Die Archaische (1913), etc.

LEO, Heinrich, German historian: b. Rudolstadt, 19 March 1799; d. Halle, 24 April 1878. He was educated at the Rudolstadt Gym nasium and at the universities of Breslau, Jena and Gottingen, and in his student days was con nected with the radicals of the German Bursch enshaf t or "Black Bands but was early alien ated from them because of their extreme meas ures and became a conservative. He became privat-docent at Erlangen in 1820, and in 1823 made a journey devoted to historical investiga tion in Italy. He was docent at Berlin in 1822 27, and for 40 years after 1828 he taught at Halle, gaining a remarkable reputation for his ability as a teacher through his powers of ex position and his unusual memory. During the

closing years of his life his mind was affected. He was a collaborator on the Jahrbitcher fur Wissenschaftliche Kritik during its existence, 1827-46. Author of (Lehrbuch der Geschichte des Mittelalters> (1830) ; (Geschichte der italienische Staaten) (5 vols., 1829-32) ; Bucher niederlandischer Geschichten) (2 vols., 1832-35) ; (Die Hegelingen> (1838); der Universalgeschichte) (6 vols., 1835-44); (Vorlestmgen fiber die Geschichte des deutschen Volks and Reichs) (1854-66); (Meine Jugen (•880), etc.

LEO, Leonardo, or, correctly, LIO NARDO ORONZ6 SALVATORE DE LEO, Italian musical composer: b. San Vito degli Schiavi, now San Vito dei Normanni, near Brindisi, 5 Aug. 1694; d. Naples, 31 Oct. 1744. He was educated at the Conservatorio della Pieta dei Turchini, Naples, studying un der Provenzale and Nicola Faga. While re puted to have studied under Scarlatti and Pitoni it is considered improbable, although his work obviously was influenced by them. He was maestro at the cathedral at Naples and at Santa Maria della Solitaria, became court organist and taught at the Conservatorio Saint Onofrio, Naples. He first attracted attention through his compositions for the stage, writing both comic and serious operas, but achieving his greatest success with his comic operas. His reputation as a composer, however, rests upon his sacred compositions, among which his (Miserere) and (Dixit Dominus) best illustrate his masterly style and the magnificent effects he obtained with comparatively simple means. He was the first of the Neapolitan school to gain a complete mastery over modern harmonic counterpoint. The most famous of his pupils were Pucini and Jommelli. He wrote about 60 operas of which the best known was the comic opera (Amor Vuol sofferenze,> also known as (La Finta Frascatana> (1739). Among his serious operas are (1735) and (1737).

LEO ("the lions), in astronomy, the name given to one of 12 zodiacal constellations and denoted by the symbol Q. It contains about 100 stars visible to the naked eye, the chief star being Regulus, also called Cor Leonis, or the Lion's Heart. The sun enters the sign Leo about 21 July. Leo Minor, the Lesser Lion, is a constellation found by Hevelius about 1691. None of its stars reach the fourth magnitude. Leonides are meteors radiating from the vicinity of Leo, usually seen about 14 Novem ber.