LEOPOLD I, Holy Roman emperor: b. Vienna, 9 June 1640; d. there, 5 May 1705. He was second son of the Emperor Ferdinand III of the house of Hapsburg and of Maria Anna of Spain, and was educated for the Church, when the death of his brothers made him heir to the throne of his father. Previous to the death of the latter in 1657, Leopold had (1655) been crowned king of Hungary, still mainly in Turkish hands; in 1656 he was elected king of Bohemia, and in 1658, in spite of the opposition of Cardinal Mazarin, emperor. The war with the Turks having been renewed in 1660, Monte cuculi won the battle of Saint Gothard on the Raab (1 Aug. 1664), which was followed, how ever, by a peace which the Hungarian partisans of the emperor regarded as ignominious. In 1678 occurred the great insurrection under Tokiily, due to the emperor's persecution of the Hungarian Protestants, who in 1683 obtained the help of the Turks by their invasion of Aus tria under Kara Mustapha. Leopold fled from Vienna, but John Sobieski's great victory saved his capital and thrones. Buda was retaken after
a memorable siege in 1686, and the victories at Zalankemen (1691) and Zenta (1697), won by the military genius of Prince Eugene, led to the peace of Carlovitz (1699), which also se cured the possession of Transylvania. But neither the wholesale executions of Hungarian patriots at Eperies, nor the acquiescence of the Diet of Presburg in the proposition to make the male line of the Hapsburgs hereditary in Hun gary (1687), could make peace permanent in that long-distracted country. Leopold also had to wage three protracted wars against Louis XIV; the last, the War of the Spanish Succes sion, which he did not live to see concluded. In the German Empire the long reign of Leo pold witnessed the growing power of the house of Brandenburg, under Frederick William, the great elector, whose son assumed the royal title under the name of Frederick I in 1701.