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LEWES, Wks, George Henry, English philosophical writer: b. London, 18 April 1817; d. there, 30 Nov. 1878. He was in turn clerk, medical student and student of philosophy in Germany, whence he returned to England in 1840 to devote himself to general literature. His first important work was his 'Biograph ical History of Philosophy> (1846), of which a second edition appeared, much extended and altered. This work, written largely from a Positivist point of view, sufficiently proved his ability as a thinker and writer. He was literary editor of the Leader (1850-54). He published his 'Life of Robespierre' (1849) and a compendium of Comte's 'Philosophy of the Science' (1853). His 'Life of Goethe' (1855) won him a European reputation. From 1854 he was largely engaged in physiological in vestigations with special reference to philo sophical problems. To this period belong his 'Seaside Studies' (1858) 'Physiology of Com mon Life' (1859-60), and 'Studies in Animal Life> (1862) ; 'Aristotle, a Chapter from the History of Science' (1864), was his last hook before he became first editor of the Fort nightly Review (1865), from which, a year later, indifferent health compelled him to retire.

His chief work, aiming at the systematic de velopment of his philosophical views, is 'Prob lems of Life and Mind' (1873-79). Besides the works already mentioned he wrote 'The Span ish Drama: Lope de Vega and Calderon' (1847); two novels, (1847) and