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Leyden

gerard, miles, situated and history

LEYDEN, Wan, or LEIDEN, Nether lands, an important town in the province of South Holland,' 22 miles by. rail southwest of Amsterdam, on both sides of the Old Rhine, which flows through the town by several branches. The neighborhood is marked by wind-mills, country-seats, pleasure-grounds, gardens and fertile meadows, and street rail roads connect with the bathing resort of Kat wyk, five miles to the northwest on the North Sea. The streets are straight, broad and clean; Broad street being esteemed one of the finest in Europe. In it is situated the town-hall (Stadhuis), originally founded toward the end of the 16th century, a pictur esque building, with 30 windows in a line in front, a tall spire and three highly-ornamented projecting gables. In the council-chamber are the painting of the 'Last Judgment,' by Lucas van Leyden, and several good historical por traits; in part of the lower floor is situated the meat market. None of the churches are re markable; the Reformed church of Saint Peter contains monuments to Boerhaave, Span heim, Scaliger, etc. The most important educa tional institution is the university founded in 1575, formerly one of the most famed in Eu rope, especially for law, and still in excellent repute. It is attended by 1,500 students. Con nected with the university are a well-laid-out botanic garden, an observatory, a library of 400,000 volumes, with over 3,000 maps and nearly 7,000 MSS., many of priceless value,

an anatomical theatre and museum of compara tive anatomy, one of the richest collections of natural history in existence, cabinet of coins, museum of antiquities and a rich Japanese mu seum. Leyden was noted for its cloth manu factures, which after 1670 declined, but have revived in recent years. There are also various other branches of manufacture and the former great trade in books, carried on in the latter part of the 17th and during the greater part of the 18th century and rendered world-renowned by the Elzevirs, is represented by several print ing offices. There is an extensive trade in agri cultural produce, especially cheese and butter. Pop. 59,207. The most memorable event in the history of Leyden is the successful siege it maintained against the Spaniards in 1573-74 until relieved by the action of the Prince of Orange in breaking down the dikes. Leyden is the birthplace of John of Leyden, the founder of the Anabaptists; Camper, Muschen broeck, the brothers Gerard and Isaac Vossius, Gronovius, Rembrandt, Luke of Leyden, the brothers Van der Velde, Gerard Douw, etc. It is of interest to Americans as the asylum from 1609 to 1620 of the persecuted English non conformists, the Pilgrim Fathers, founders of the New England States.