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regarded, physiological and result

LIBIDO, a term introduced into analytic psychology in 1895 by Sigmund Freud of Vienna and used by him to denote the vital urge or drive or craving, which is behind all human endeavor and especially the desire of the re productive instincts. Jung of Zurich has sub stituted for it the term Horme [Greek: 6p01. The libido is regarded as having two main phases or aspects: the sexual, or race preserva tive, and the nutritive, or self-preservative. Every human activity is regarded as satisfying in some form one or the other of these spheres of desire and as the result of the specification in concrete reality of one or other of them. Thus various forms of art may be the expression of the sexual libido, and various callings and professions and types of business activity such as dealing in foods or in clothing are expres sions in different forms of the self-preservative urge. This point of view is of great import ance, particularly in the psychotherapeutics of certain psychogenic nervous disorders. In hysteria, for example, the libido is regarded as fixated on the physiological level with the result that there is an exaggerated activity in some of the physiological processes producing an in creased flow of blood or lymph or certain of the internal in in some of the organs, pro ducing n turn a change in metabolism which causes an over-development. This is termed a

hysterical conversion and is made manifest in many of the symptoms so varied in hysteria. In compulsion neurosis, on the other hand, the libido becomes fixated at an .early age upon certain psychic elements with the result that special forms of thought, compulsive fear, com pulsive doubt, compulsive action, etc., occur, without producing any specific change in the physiological functions. Analytic psychology, as practised therapeutically by physicians, aims to resolve the fixations of the libido and thus free the patient from his physical symptoms or from his mental inhibitions and therefore to educate him in such a way as to be better able to fulfil the requirements imposed upon him by society. Consult Jelliffe, 'Technique Psycho-. analysis) (New York 1918).