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Library Training M W

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LIBRARY TRAINING. M. W. Schret finger, in his (Versuch eines vollstandigen Lehr buchs der Bibliotheks-wissenschaft) (Munich 1829) was probably first to suggest special schools for training librarians. F. Rullman, librarian of the University of Freiburg, in 1874 outlined a university course in library science. The older libraries and librarians were intensely individualistic, and these, as well as other early schemes, emphasized the bibliographical side rather than the administrative. Recogni tion of librarianship as a profession and the consequent professional co-operation of libra rians were necessary for substantial progress in library training. The first really construc tive work in this direction followed the forma tion of the American Library Association in 1876. A regular course in bibliography was established at the University of Michigan in 1882 and a chair of library science at Gottin gen under Karl Dziatzko, in 1886.

The beginning of systematic library training in America is largely due to Melvil Dewey, who on 5 Jan. 1887 opened the School of Li brary Economy at Columbia College, New York City, This was transferred to Albany in 1889 and renamed the New York State Library School. From this pioneer school five types of library training agencies have developed: li brary schools; apprentice and training courses; short courses; library courses in schools and colleges and miscellaneous agencies.

Library Schools.— Regular library schools give courses of either one or two school years. All arc connected with libraries which are used for study and practice. The location of the school usually determines whether public, col lege or reference library work is emphasized. The principal subjects are substantially the same in the different schools. They include bibliogra phy, reference work, selection and evaluation of books, history of hooks and libraries, binding, cataloging, classification, library administra tion, library buildings and many other technical and social aspects of library work, sometimes grouped under the term ((library Practice in varied library work is required. Entrance requirements range from high school graduation to college degree.

The Association of American Library Schools was formed at Albany, N. Y., 29-30 June 1915, for the improvement of library school training. Membership is limited to schools giving at least one full year of library training and meeting the minimum standards of equipment, faculty personnel and curriculum prescribed by the association. The present members of the association (1919), with date of founding, length of course and degrees granted are: 1887. New York State Library School, Albany, N. Y. (2 years. College graduates only. Bachelor of Library Science. Master of Library Science.) 1890. Pratt Institute School of Library Science, Brooklyn, N. Y. (I year.) 1893. University of Illinois Library School. Mina, IE. (2 years. College graduates only. Bachelor of Library Science.) 1897. Syracuse University Library School. Syracuse, N. Y. (2 years. Bachelor of Library Economy.) 1900. Carnegie Library School. Pittsburgh, Pa. (3 courses of 1 year each.) 1902. Simmons College. School of Library Science, Boston. Mass. (1 year. Bachelor of Science.) 1904. Library School of Western Reserve University, Cleve land. Ohio. (1 year.) 1905. Library School of the Carnegie Library of Atlanta, Ga. (1 year.) 1906. Library School of the University of Wisconsin, Madi son, Wis. (1 year.) 1911. Library School of the New York Public Library, New York City. (1 year and advanced electives.) 1914. Los Angeles Public Library Training School, Los Angeles. Cal. (1 year.) Other library schools giving a one-year course are the California State Library School, Sacramento, Cal.; Saint Louis Public Library School, Saint Louis, Mo.; University of Wash ington Library School, Seattle, Wash., and the Riverside Library Service School, Riverside, Cal. (33 weeks).

Apprentice and Training Be fore the establishment of library schools, serv ice as an apprentice was the usual method of library training. Most large library systems now conduct elementary classes for training assistants for their own libraries. The instruc tion is usually local in emphasis and chiefly concerned with administrative details. Train ing classes vary greatly in length, subjects treated and methods of instruction.

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