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Library

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LIBRARY.

Pergamon Libraries.— Hardly less famous than the Alexandrian libraries were those founded by the kings of Pergamus. During the two centuries prior to the Christian era, Greek civilization reached an astonishing height in the cities of Asia Minor. Among these, Pergamon was the most noted for its love of art and letters. Under Attalus I V41-197 B.c.) and his son, Eumenes II (197-159 B.c.), the city was beautified, objects of art were created or imported in great numbers and learn ing in every form was encouraged. It is prob able that Attalus founded the libraries of Per gamon, but it was his successor that developed them, seeking throughout the world to obtain texts by any means and from any source. It has already been noted that Aristotle's library, according to Strabo, was hidden away in a cave in order to prevent its falling into the hands of the agents of the kings of Pergamon. Strabo, however, wrote more than a century after these happenings and, as he is often in error, this story is interesting more for the light it throws upon the methods pursued in developing the libraries of Pergamon. At any rate they grew until they rivaled those of Alexandria, causing, it is said, an embargo on papyrus, so that the Pergamoi were forced to resort to parchment (pergantentum). This tradition also may be accepted with caution, for sheepskin had long been used for manu scripts in Greece.

How many rolls and codices were in the libraries of Pergamon it is impossible to esti mate. About the only reference to their number is the passage from Plutarch, wherein Antony is accused in Rome of presenting Cleopatra with the collections of Pergamon,— amore than 200,000 separate volumes)) The Acropolis of Pergamon was excavated in 1878 and the rooms assigned to the library determined. They form the subject of a monograph by Couze — 'Die pergamen Bibliotek) (1884).

Ancient There is little evidence in ancient literature indicating Roman interest in libraries prior to the wars with Greece. Rome conquered Greece, but in turn was conquered by Greek culture. It is narrated that Lucius 2Emilius Paulus, who defeated Perseus and overthrew the Macedonian Empire in 168 B.c., carried the library of Perseus to Rome, "the first that was seen in the capital of the world.° Thus Sylla, after subjugating Athens, gathered from Athenian hooks a library alike extensive and choice. (Consult Bacmeister, sur la Bibliotheque de l'Academie des Sciences de Saint Petersbourg,) quoted in Edwards, (Mem oirs of libraries,) Vol. II, p. 544). Lucullus (110-57 a.c.) who had been a general in the Mithridatic wars and had returned to Rome under the spell of Greek and Oriental civiliza tion, is the first Roman distinguished as a col lector of hooks. Plutarch, in his life of Lu colitis, says : "His furnishing a library, how ever, deserves praise and record, for he collected very many choice manuscripts; and the use they were put to was even more magnificent than the purchase, the library being always open and the walks and reading-rooms about it free to all Greeks, whose delight it was to leave their other occupations and hasten thither as to the habitation of the Muses?) Pliny states that Caius Asinius Pollio (76 n.c.-6 A.D.) founded the first public library in Rome. It has been seen that the library of Lucullus was open to readers but they were mainly his friends, the library thus never wholly losing the character of a private collection. Pollio, in founding the public library, was undoubtedly carrying out a plan of Julius Caesar, to form libraries through out all Rome, unfortunately miscarried by his death. (Suetonius Jul 44). Caesar, apparently, had planned a system of public libraries, and placed the execution of this in the hands of the famous scholar, Varro. That Varro was en thusiastic in furtherance of the enterprise is indicated by the fact that one of his lost works was a treatise upon libraries and their develop ment. It would seem that under Pollio the scheme finally assumed a definite form, and we know that in the library Varro was honored by the erection of a statue to him. Caesar's dream of establishing a widespread system of libraries was in part realized by Augustus. Two new collections were founded by him in Rome: the Octavian and the Palatine, the former founded and named in honor of his sister, Octavia. This was housed in a splendid building constructed for the purpose. C. Me lissus was the first librarian. The Palatine, according to Suetonius, was housed in two additions made to the temple of Apollo. •On either side of the Temple of Apollo stood libraries, one Greek and the other Latin, which contained none but works of special merit, with medallions of their authors embossed in either gold, silver or bronze." (Consult Thomas, 'Roman life under the Caesars' ). Of this Porn peius Macer was the first librarian, who was succeeded by Julius Hyginus. The Octavian Library was destroyed during the great fire which raged for three days during the reign of Titus (79 Ai)). Records are extant of some 28 libraries in the Roman provinces and other dependencies of the empire, notably at Milan, Comum, Tibur, Potrae, Athens, Smyrna, Pom peii and Herculaneum. ((There was more over in Timgad a unique public library. It has been identified exactly through an in scription to the following effect: 'Out of the funds bequeathed by Marcus Julius Quin tianus Flaws .Rogatianus, of Senatorial mem ory, by his will to the colony of Thamagudi, his mother city, the erection of a library has been completed at a cost of 400,000 sesterces, under the direction of the city authorities.' The

building in question consists of a rectangle of 77 by 80 feet, with recesses for receiving vol umes or rolls of papyrus, with benches and seats for readers. There are also side rooms and evidently two upper galleries for book 'stacks,' the great central hall having a kind of sky light to facilitate reading. It seems to have been the custom in Rome as in America, for wealthy and distinguished citizens, Carnegie-like, to start the ball rolling, so to speak, in the matter of municipal libraries. We are reminded of the fact that the public library was a Roman in stitution, and that there were 28 public libraries in Rome in the 4th century. Some ingenious calculator has measured the space of the Tim gad library, avowing that it contained at least 23,000 volumes.* (Consult Cooper, C. S., in The Boston Transcript, 2 Jan. 1918). Emperor Domitian expended vast sums in restoring the Roman libraries. He collected manuscripts from all parts of the empire, even sending scribes to Alexandria and other places to copy hooks when the originals themselves could not be obtained. Plutarch refers to a library founded by Oc tavia in memory of Marcellus, and Aulus Gellius to the collection in the palace of Tiber ius, another in the temple of Peace, founded by Vcspasian, and Dion Cassius gives an account of the famous Ulpian Library, founded by Trajan, which was first housed in the Forum of Trajan, but afterward transferred to the Baths of Diocletian. The library of Tiberius was burned in 191 A.D., during the reign of Commodus; the Palatine in the great confla gration of 363 A.D. (recorded by Ammianus Marcellinus, xxiii-3-3). That there were num berless private collections there can be no doubt. That of Lucullus has already been referred to, while Tyrannion, a Greek scholar captured by Lucullus in the Greek wars, was employed in arranging the library of Apellicon the Teian, seized by Sylla at Athens. This was, accord ing to tradition, the original library of Aristotle which was hidden in the cave to prevent its falling into the hands of the king of Pergamus. (Cf. Plutarch, (Sylla'). Suidas asserts that Tyrannion formed a library of his own, number ing more than 30,000 rolls. This, however, may refer to the library of Apellicon. That Cicero was an ardent collector of books we know from many allusions in his writings, and Serenus Sammonicus, a physician of the 3d century A.D., possessed a library of 62,000 volumes. (Capi tolintis, Cord. xviii, 2). The excavations of Pompeii and Herculaneum verify the fact that many residences had provision for libraries. In a few cases the cabinets and the rolls therein were still intact, from which a very accurate image of an ancient library has been obtained. The rolls were kept in cupboards (arnsaria) usually against the walls of the apartment, but sometimes detached. These were often elabo rately decorated. As a guide to the contents of the different cases, the names of the authors were placed on the doors, sometimes sur mounted by gold, silver or bronze medallion portraits. The walls of the room were often ornamented with frescoes or mosaics, statuary and other works of art. The public library doubtless had the same characteristics, but on a more extensive scale. Greek and Latin works were usually separated, the books in each divi sion being subarranged according to subject: law, theology, philosophy, geography, medicine, belles-lettres, etc. Consult Cagnat, 'Les biblio thiques municipales dans l'empire romain.' Byzantine Empire.— The division of the empire was a serious blow to library develop ment. Rome lost its interest in Greek liter ature and Constantinople cared little for the Latin. Furthermore, the spirit of the early Christians was opposed to the pagan writings, and many valuable collections were destroyed by narrow-minded fanatics. Constantine I is said to have possessed a royal library, but it could not have numbered more than a few hundred items, and those mainly theological. Julian, essentially a student and a lover of classic literature, is said to have added many books to the palace library, which numbered, according to some authorities, 120,000 volumes. This was burned by the iconoclasts during the reign of Leo the Isaurian (8th century), but later rebuilt. The Byzantine emperors of the 9th to the 11th century were patrons of learning and probably collected libraries. Little, how ever, is known about them. Under Leo Sapiens and Constantine Porphyrogenitus it is said that the libraries were restored, and undoubtedly members of the Commenian dynasty found time in the midst of their intrigues to collect books.

Monastic attitude of the early Fathers of the Church was rather inimical to any books save those of a religious nature, as has been indicated by the destruction of the Alexandrian libraries (q.v.) under Theophi lus, archbishop of Alexandria, during the reign of Theodosius. This was owing to the fact that they were mainly pagan works. Soon, however, a body of Christian literature arose, and it was not long before the churchmen be came as ardent collectors of books as their predecessors. Each monastery had its archivum, as had many churches. Skilful copyists were employed in transcribing religious books. Ac cording to the Theodosian Code, seven copyists were attached to the library at Constantinople. The Basilica at Caesarea, founded by Pamphilus (A.D. 309), contained about 30,000 volumes.