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Millerand

cabinet, war, minister and labor

MILLERAND, Alexandre, French lawyer and statesman: b. Paris, 10 Feb. 1859. He was educated at the Lycee Vanves, the Lycee Henri IV and at the University of Paris, where he studied for the bar. He established his reputa tion when he acted as a member of counsel for the defense of the strikers at Montceau-des Mines in 1882. In politics he was a radical So cialist and as such he was elected to the Cam-. her of Deputies in 1885, advocating collective ownership of production, and international unions of labor. He was, with Clemenceau, one of the arbitrators of the Carmaux strike in 1892. He had owned and edited La Voix from 1889, and he later edited La Petite Republique, the organ of the Socialists. In 1899 he was appointed Minister of Commerce in the Waldeck-Rousseau Cabinet, after which time he abandoned his extreme views and bent his energies toward encompassing certain practical reforms. Among them were improve ments in the merchant marine; stimulation of trade; reforms in postal service; the establish ment of a 10-hour working-day for women and children; an eight-hour day for miners; and the inauguration of one rest day a week for workers. He also endeavored to secure an en forcement of arbitration in labor disputes. He was an advocate of old age pensions, the law for which was passed in 1905; and he was re sponsible for the institution of separate depart ments for the direction of labor, insurance and pensions. His influence with the Socialists

waned and his connection with the party was severed because of his entering the cabinet of an opposing party. In 1898 he became editor of La Lanterne and in 1902 the Waldeck-Rous seau Cabinet was dissolved. He served in Briand's Cabinet as Minister of Public Works in 1909-10, and was Minister of War under Poincare in 1912-13. On the organization of the war cabinet under Viviani, 26 Aug. 1914, he was again appointed Minister of War. He was criticized for lack of vigor in prosecuting the war and in the cabinet organized by Briand 31 Oct. 1915 he was succeeded by General Gal fieni, whereupon he resumed his law practice, but continued in active service in the Chamber of Deputies. He was designated to attend the War Conference at London 20 Jan. 1916. He wrote Reformiste en France' (1903) ; 'Travail et Travailleurs' (1906); 'Politique de realisations' (1911); 'Pour la defense Nationale' (1913); 'The Charitable Efforts of the United States' (1917); 'La guerre literatrice' (1918), etc.