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Encyclopedia Americana, Volume 19

Military Surgery
Military Surgery. Military Sur Gery Was First Recognized As A Separate Branch Of Medical Science About The Middle Of The 16th Century. But Was Not Taught As A Special Study In Medical Colleges Until The Year 1829. Since Then Instruction Has Been Given By The Ablest Surgeons Both In Europe ...

Military Transportation
Military Transportation. In Wheel Transportation The Wagon Is The Unit, And Each Animal Can Haul, On A Conservative Esti Mate, 1,200 Pounds Gross Or 700 Pounds Net Load. In Pack Transportation The Animal Is The Unit, And Each Can Carry, Also A Conservative Estimate, 300 Pounds Gross Or 225 Pounds ...

Militia
Militia. The World War Has Greatly Enlarged The Conception Of National Military Power. Militia From The Earliest Period Has Signified The Manhood Power Of A Nation, Avail Able For Military Purposes (and Also, In A Re Stricted Sense, The Enrolled Volunteers From That Body, Who Might, Under Sanction Of Law, ...

Milk
Milk, Human. This Liquid Has A Specific Gravity Of 1028.34, And Contains Water, 87.4; Total Solids, 12.6; Fat, 3.4; Albuminoids, 1.2; Sugar, 7.0; Ash, 0.2. It Is Slightly Alkaline, Is Sterile And Differs Mainly From Cow's Milk In Being Sweeter And Having Less Fat And Casein. Its Fat Is More ...

Milk
Milk May Be Defined As The Normal Secre Tion Of The Mammary Glands. The Milk Of All Mammals Is Similar In Qualitative Composition, Consisting Essentially Bf Water, Fat, Proteins, Milk-sugar And Salts Or Ash. Colostrum, The Fluid Secreted For A Short Time Immediately After Giving Birth To The Young, Is ...

Milk Fish
Milk Fish, A Clupeod Fish (chanos Cha Nos) Common In The Pacific Ocean And Valu Able As A Food Fish. It Attains A Length Of About Four Feet. See Phlegmasia. (sometimes Called "trembles"), A Malignant Fever Attacking Man And Some Of The Lower Animals, Such As Un Weaned Calves And ...

Milking Machine
Milking Machine, A Mechanical Ap Paratus For Milking Cows Without Hand Labor. The Milking Is Accomplished By Producing A Vacuum At The End Of The Cow's Teat. The Ap Paratus Consists Of A Rigid Teat Cup With A Collapsible Upper Edge For The Purpose Of Pre Venting The Entrance Of ...

Mill
Mill, James, British Economist, Historian And Utilitarian Philosopher; B. Northwater Bridge, Forfarshire, Scotland, 6 April 1773; D. Kensingston, 23 June 1836. His Father Was A Cobbler, His Mother A Farmer's Daughter And His Early Abilities Were So Marked That Great Care Was Taken With His Education, So That In 1790 ...

Mill
Mill, John Stuart, English Social And Political Reformer, Philosopher, Economist: B. London, 20 Mav,1806; D. Avignon, 8 May 1873. Few Have Combined So Intimately A Vital En Thusiasm For Human Progress, With A Keenly Critical And Most Scholarly Temper. He Presents In All His Most Important Lines Of Work The ...

Mill Springs
Mill Springs, Battle Of. The Opening Of The Kentucky-tennessee Campaign Of 1862. At The Close Of 1861 The Confederate Line Ex Tended From Columbus, Ky. On The Mississippi, Through Fort Henry On Tie Tennessee, Fort Donelson On The Cumberland, Clarksville, Tenn., And Bowling Green, Ky., To Mill Springs On The ...

Mill Valley
Mill Valley, Cal., Town, 12 Miles North Of San Francisco On The Northwestern Pacific Railroad. Marin County, In Which This Town Is Situated, Is Noted For Its Beautiful Scenery. Mill Valley Is In A Fine Fruit-growing District And Owns Its Waterworks. Pop. 2,550. Mina', Sir John Everett, Eng Lish Painter: ...

Mill On The Floss
Mill On The Floss, The. This Novel, By George Eliot (mrs. Marianne Evans Cross), Published In 1860, Was The Second Of The Long Novels Of The Author, Being Preceded By The Various 'scenes From Clerical And The Novel Bede.' It Was Favorably Received On Publication And The Opening Parts, Particularly ...

Millennium
Millennium (lat. Mile, 1,000, And Fluids, A Year), A Period Of 1,000 Years. Hence It Is A Term Applied To The Period During Which, According To Some, Jesus Christ Will Return To Reign On Earth Before The End Of The World. This Premillennial Appearance Of Christ Will Be Signalized By ...

Miller
Miller, Cincinnati's Heine (better Known As Joaquin Miller), American Poet, Whose Pseudonym Was Due To His Defense Of Joaquin Murietta, A Mexican Bandit: B. Wabash District, Ind., 10 Nov. 1841; D. San Francisco, Cal., 17 Feb. 1913. His Father Took Him To Oregon In 1854. He Got A Little Schooling ...

Miller_2
Miller, Hugh, Scottish Geologist And Au Thor: B. Cromarty, 10 Oct. -1802; D. Portabello. Near Edinburgh, 23 Dec. 1856, When Five Years Old He Lost His Father, A Seaman, And Thus Came Under The Care Of His Mother And Her Two Brothers, Who Were Unable To Keep Him In School, ...

Miller_3
Miller, Samuel Freeman, American Jurist : B. Richmond, Ky., 5 April 1816; D. Washington, D. C., 13 Oct. 1890. He Was Graduated From The Medical Department Of Transylvania University In 1838 And Engaged In Practice, But In 1847 He Was Admitted To The Bar And Abandoned Medicine. He Was An ...

Miller_4
Miller, William, American Religious Leader: B. Pittsfield, Mass., 5 Feb. 1782; D. Low Hampton, Washington County, N. Y., 20 Dec. 1849. Most Of His Education He Obtained Through Books Procured By Wood-chopping. He Became A Farmer At Poultney, Vt., In 1803, And In 1816 Removed To Low Hampton, N. Y. ...

Millerand
Millerand, Alexandre, French Lawyer And Statesman: B. Paris, 10 Feb. 1859. He Was Educated At The Lycee Vanves, The Lycee Henri Iv And At The University Of Paris, Where He Studied For The Bar. He Established His Reputa Tion When He Acted As A Member Of Counsel For The Defense ...

Millet
Millet, Francis Davis, American Artist, Author, War Correspondent And Illustrator: B. Mattapoiset, Mass., 3 Nov. 1846; D. 15 April 1912, One Of The Victims Of The Titanic Steam Ship Disaster. During The Civil War He Acted As Drummer And Assistant Surgeon. In 1869 He Was Graduated A.b. And A.m. In ...

Millet_2
Millet, Jean Francois, Zhon Me-la, French Painter, The Founder Of The Bar Bizon School Of Painting: B. Gruchy, Near Cher Bourg, 4 Oct. 1814; D. Barbizon, 20 Jan. 1875. The Son Of A Norman Peasant, He Owed Much In His Childhood To A Woman Of Simple Piety And Strong Individuality, ...

Millikens Bend
Milliken's Bend, Engagement At. Milliken's Bend, La., On The West Bank Of The Mississippi, About 15 Miles Above Vicksburg, Was The Base Of Some Of The Military Operations Against That Place And The Lower Mississippi. Early In June 1863, When Grant Was Besieging Vicksburg From The East, Gen. E. Kirby ...

Millville
Millville, Mil'vil, N. J., City In Cum Berland County, On The Maurice River, A Navi Gable Stream 20 Miles In Length, Which Empties Into The Delaware Bay, And On The West Jersey And Sea Shore Railroad, A Branch Of The Penn Sylvania Railroad, Situated Just 40 Miles South Of Philadelphia ...

Milne
Milne, John, English Geologist And Seis Mologist : B. Liverpool, 1850; D. Isle Of Wight, 30 July 1913. He Was Educated At King's Col Lege And The Royal School Of Mines, London, And Practised As Mining Engineer In Cornwall, Lancashire, Central Europe And Newfoundland, Besides Accompanying An Expedition To Arabia ...

Milne Edwards
Milne-edwards, Henri, French Nat Uralist: B. Bruges, 'belgium, 23 Oct. 1800; D. Paris, 28 July 1885. His Parents Were English. He Studied Medicine In Paris, Taking His Degree In 1823. Soon He Turned His Attention To Zool Ogy. After Teaching For Several Years In The College De Henri Iv, He ...

Miltiades
Miltiades, Mll-tl'a-dez, Athenian Gen Eral: D. 489 B.c. He Was A Descendant Of The Philaides And, After Being Archon At Athens In 524, Inherited A Minor Principality In The Chersonesus In 518. He Governed Well There; Accompanied Darius Against The Scythians In 515, And Being Left At The Bridge Across ...

Milton
Milton, Mass., Town In Norfolk County, Seven Miles South Of Boston, On The Neponset River And The New York, New Haven And Hartford Railroad. Milton Is An Attractive And Wealthy Residential Suburb Of Boston, Valued In 1914 At $31,602,839 And Occupy Ing About 13 Square Miles. A Portion Of The ...

Milton
Milton, John, English Poet: B. London, 9 Dec. 1608; D. London, 8 Nov. 1674. He Was The Son Of John Milton (d. 1647), A Prosperous And Cultivated Scrivener With Marked Leanings To Puritanism, And Sarah Jeffrey (d. 1637), Of Whom Little Is Known. The Pair Had Six Chil Dren, Three ...

Milwaukee
Milwaukee, Mil-wale, Wis., Capital Of Milwaukee County And The Metropolis Of The State; On The West Shore Of Lake Michigan, At The Confluence Of Three Rivers — Milwaukee, Menomonee And Kinnickinnic. The Converg Ing Streams Flow Into A Bay Of Great Natural Beauty, Which Extends Nearly Three Miles Inland And ...

Milyukov
Milyukov, Pavel Nikolaevitch, Rus Sian Historian, Educator And Political Leader: B. Near Saint Petersburg, 1857. Educated In Moscow He Became A Tutor In History At The University In 1886-95. Because Of His Liberal Views Regarding Political Reforms He Was Banished From Russia. He Then Went To Bul Garia And Became ...

Mimansa
Mimansa (from The Sanskrit Man, To Investigate), Investigation, Is The Collective Name Of Two Of The Six Divisions Of Orthodox Hindu Philosophy. The Two Mimansi Divisions Are: (1), The Pfirva-mimansa (prior Inquiry, Or Karma-miminsi), Investigation Concerning Works That Deal Chiefly With The Vedic Ritual And Its Significance; And (2), Uttara-miminsi ...

Mimicry In Animals
Mimicry In Animals. One Of The Ways By Which Species And Groups Of Animals Are Perpetuated. Its Effect Is To Assure The Safety Of Individuals By Reason Of Their Having Such A Likeness To Something Else That The Eye Of Another Animal Seeking To Do Them Harm Overlooks Them, By ...

Mina
Mina, Francisco Espoz Y, Spanish Guer Rillero Leader And General: B. Ydozin, Navarra, Spain, 17 June 1781; D. Barcelona, 24 Dec. 1836. As He Sprang From The Yeomen Class, He Naturally Espoused Radical And Democratic Ideas At An Early Age. When Napoleon Tried To Seize Spain, In 1808, Mina Enlisted ...

Minahassas
Minahassas, A Medley Of Malayan Tribes Of More Or Less Savage Type Living In The Province Of Minahassa In Northern Celebes. By Some Authorities This Group Of Natives Is Called Alfuros, Meaning Wild, Or Half-savage. In Language The Minahassas Seem To Belong To The Malay Stock But Physically They Resemble ...

Minamoto Yoritomo
Minamoto Yoritomo, Japanese War Rior And Statesman And One Of The Most Famous Figures In Japanese History: B. 1146; D. 1199. The Chief Clans In Japan In The Middle Of The 12th Century Were The Taira And Their Rivals, The Minamoto. The Mikados, Like The Valois Kings Of France In ...

Mindanao
Mindanao, Men-di-now', Philippines, The Most Southeastern And Second Largest Island Of The Archipelago, Lying Between Lat. 5° 35' And 9° 50' N. And Between Long. 121° 53' And 126° 28' E., About 220 Miles Northeast Of Borneo. It Is Bounded On The East By The Pacific Ocean And On The ...

Mindoro
Mindoro, Mdn-db'ro, Philippines, An Island Lying South Of Luzon, A Little North Of The Centre Of The Archipelago; Length, North West To Southeast, 110 Miles; Width, Northeast To Southwest 56 Miles; Area, 3,851 Square Miles, With Dependent Islands, 4,024. The Island, Which Is Oval In Outline, Is Mountainous, The General ...

Mine Accidents
Mine Accidents. The Conservation Of Human Life In Mining And Other Industrial Plants Is Of Such Importance That It Has Re Sulted In The Enactment Of Inspection Laws, The Purpose Of Which Is To Safeguard The Work Men. The First Coal Mine-inspection Law Was Enacted In Pennsylvania In 1870,• And ...

Mine Planters
Mine Planters. The Mine Planter Service In Time Of Peace Is Organized For Instruc Tion Purposes. In Time Of War The Vessels Of This Service, Together With Such Additional Ves Sels As May Be Obtained For This Duty By The War Department, Are Assigned To The Various Coast Defenses For ...

Mine Run
Mine Run, Campaign Of. During The Civil War, On 7 And 8 Nov. 1863 General Meade Crossed The Rappahannock At Kelley's Ford And Rappahannock Station, And Concentrated His Army Of 70,000 Men In The Vicinity Of Brandy Station, General Lee, With 50,000 Men, With Drawing Beyond The Rapidan To An ...

Mine Sweeping
Mine-sweeping. Almost Immediately Upon The Development Of The Mine Itself Came The Development Of Measures For Combating Of Mines. From The Very First The Mine Was Used As A Weapon Of Offense And It Became Necessary To Find Some Means Of Protection Against It. As Early As 1777, Bushnell, An ...

Mineral Land Laws Of
Mineral Land Laws Of The United States. Mineral Lands Of The United States Are Disposed Of Under The Gen Eral Laws Dating Back To 1866. Lands Contain Ing Valuable Mineral Deposits May Be Acquired By One Of Two Methods, The First As Provided For Lode Claims And The Second As ...

Mineral Waters
Mineral Waters, A Term Used To Designate Such Waters As Have As Constituents An Unusual Proportion Of Medicinal Minerals. Mineral Waters Have Been Used As Remedial Agents From The Earliest Days Of Greece And Rome. There Were Sulphurous Thermal Springs At Tiberius, Which Are Still Used By Invalids From All ...

Mineralogy
Mineralogy Is The Science Which Treats Of Minerals And Especially Of The Prop Erties Of These Minerals, Their Chemical Be Havior And Composition, Their Crystalline Form And Structure, Their Physical Characters, Their Classification And Their Determination. Mineral Ogy Also Considers The Part Each Mineral Plays In Nature, Its History, Its ...

Mines And Mining
Mines And Mining, Military. In All Periods Of The History Of Warfare, Particularly In Siege Operations And The Somewhat Similar Operations In Trench Warfare, Recourse Has Been Had To The Use And Construction Of Subterranean Passages, Either As A Means Of Penetrating The Lines Of The Enemy, Or To Avoid ...

Minghetti
Minghetti, Min-jet-te, Marco, Italian Statesman And Writer; B. 'bologna, Italy, 8 Nov. 1818; D. Rome, 10 Dec. 1886. He Came Of A Wealthy Family And Was Given A University Edu Cation. After Studying The Political Institutions Of France, Great Britain And Germany, He Re Turned To Italy And Published An ...

Miniature Painting
Miniature Painting (from The Latin Minium, "red Leacp), A Painting On A Very Small Scale. The Art Has Its Origin In The Prac Tice Of Embellishing Books, In Which The Prin Cipal Pigment Used Was Red Lead. Hence The Low Latin Verb °ininiare,° To Color With Red Lead, Was Applied ...

Mining
Mining. Is A Basic Industry, The Magnitude Of Which Is Indicated By The 6,000,000 Men Employed In The Various Mines In The World. Of This Number About 3,800,000 Men Are En Gaged In Coal Mining And 2,200,000 In Other Mining. In Addition Millions Are Employed In The Allied Industries, Such ...

Mining Engineering
Mining Engineering, Is That Branch Of Engineering Which Pertains To The Operations Of Extracting Useful Minerals From The Deposits In Which They Occur. While No Distinct Line Can Be Drawn Between The Fields Occupied By Mining And Mining Engineering, The Former May Be Termed An Art And The Latter A ...

Mining Laws Of The
Mining Laws Of The United States.* Government Ownership Of Min Erals — Discovery Of Gold.— The United States Mining Statutes Apply Mainly To The Ownership And Acquisition Of Minerals In The Public Lands. They Do Not Regulate Or Control Underground Mining Operations. The Govern Ment On Its Formation Made No ...

Mining And Milling Machin
. Mining And Milling Machin Ery. Problems In Mining May Be Classified Into Groups According To Their Relation To Ge Ology, Engineering, Machinery And Metallurgy; But As The Problems Of Each Group Overlap To Some Extent Those Of The Others, The Special Con Sideration Of The Subject Of Mining Machinery ...

Mink
Mink, A Circumpolar Species Of Weasel (family Mustelida), Valuable As A Fur-bearer, Known In North America As Putorius Visor, And In The Old World As P. Lutreola, Although Substantially The Same Animal. The Mink Is A True Weasel, With 34 Teeth And Not A Marten With 38; Hut It Is ...

Minna Von Barnhelm
Minna Von Barnhelm. Lessing's 'minna Von Barnhelm Or Th'e Soldier's For Tune,' A Comedy Of Five Acts In Prose—begun 1763, Published 1767—is Most Important For The Rise Of Modern German Literature Since It Was The First Dramatic Work Of Timely Interest Growing Out Of Great National Events (consult Goethe, Wichtung ...

Minneapolis
Minneapolis, The County-seat Of Hen Nepin County And The Metropolis Of Minnesota, Situated At The Falls Of Saint Anthony, On The Mississippi River. On The East The City Is Con Tiguous To Saint Paul For Half Its Length The Two Being Known As The Twin Cities. Vin Neapolis Lies On ...

Minnesinger
Minnesinger, Min'e-sing-er, Or Min Nesanger (from Old German Mimic', Love), The Name Given To The German Lyric Poets Of The 12th And 13th Centuries On Account Of Love Being The Chief Subject Of Their Poems. The Cradle Of German Lyric Poetry Was Upper Austria. The Earliest German Poetry Was Chiefly ...

Minnesong
Minnesong (german Minnesang, Min Negesang, From Minne, And Sang, 'sone), A Mediaeval Type Of German Love-lyric, Written Chiefly By Knightly Poets In The 12th, 13th And 14th Centuries, In The Middle High German Dialect. The Earliest Of The 300 Or More Names Of Minnesingers That Have Been Preserved Are Kiirnberger, ...

Minnesota
Minnesota. University Of. A Coedu Cational State Institution Of Higher Learning On The East Bank Of The Mississippi River In Minne Apolis, Minn., Established By An Act Of The Ter Ritorial Legislature In 1851 And Confirmed By The State Constitution Adopted In 1857. The Present Charter Was Adopted In 1868, ...

Minnesota
Minnesota (dakota, "sky-tinted Is Bounded On The East By The Mississippi River, The Saint Croix River And A Line Running North From The Western Bend Of This Stream For 40 Miles Until It Strikes The Extreme Western End Of Lake Superior, And By The Curving North West Shore Of The ...