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Milne-Edwards

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MILNE-EDWARDS, Henri, French nat uralist: b. Bruges, 'Belgium, 23 Oct. 1800; d. Paris, 28 July 1885. His parents were English. He studied medicine in Paris, taking his degree in 1823. Soon he turned his attention to zool ogy. After teaching for several years in the College de Henri IV, he was elected in 1838 a member of the Academie de Sciences in Onier's place. His 'Recherches anatomiques sur les published in 1828, attracted attention, and from that time until his death he published books and essays on his specialty; taught natural history, and became a noted edu cator, as well as an original investigator. In 1837 he became editor of the zoological depart ment of the des sciences naturelles,' which he held for 50 years and to which he was a contributor. In 1841 he became professor of entomology in the Jardin des Plantes (Mu seum of Natural History), Paris, where 21 years later he succeeded Geoffrey St. Hilaire in the chair of zoology. In 1864 he became di rector of that famous institution. The Royal Society of England honored him in 1850 with the Copley medal for his zoological work. Milne-Edwards was the first to describe the im portant biological principle of the physiological division of labor. Although a contemporary of Darwin and Huxley, Milne-Edwards was little influenced by those men of science and held to the doctrine of special creations instead of the evolution theory. In the work of his latest

years he was assisted by his son, Alphonse (1835-1900), who was a specialist in the study of fossil birds and deep-sea exploration. Milne-Edwards published 'Elements de ow:: on lecons sur l'anatomie, la physiologic, la r sification, etc., des animaux' (1834-35), which had an enormous circulation, and was much used as a basis for manuals of zoology; a revision of Lamarck's (L'histoire naturelle des animaux sans vertebras' (1836-45), and with Dehayes (Lecons sur la physiologic et l'anatomie comparees de l'homme et des animaux' (1855414); (Histoire naturelle des crustaces' (1834-.40) and 'Histoire naturelle des corallinaires' (1857-60) were noteworthy. His 'Lectures on the Physiology and Compara tive Anatomy of Man and the Animals' (14 vols., 1857-81) are valued for their great fund of information and ample references. He also published 'Natural History of the French Coasts' and