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shocks, earthquakes and seismological

MILNE, John, English geologist and seis mologist : b. Liverpool, 1850; d. Isle of Wight, 30 July 1913. He was educated at King's Col lege and the Royal School of Mines, London, and practised as mining engineer in Cornwall, Lancashire, central Europe and Newfoundland, besides accompanying an expedition to Arabia as geologist. In 1875 he was appointed by the Japanese government to the chair of geology and mining in the Imperial College of Engi neering at Tokio, where he married a Japanese lady and remained nearly 20 years. In 1880 he founded the Seismological Society of Japan, from which hundreds of observing stations sprang up all over the country a land sub ject to perhaps a thousand earthquake shocks a year. With the assistance of English col leagues Milne was the first to devise instru ments for recording these shocks, and his in vestigations led to the precision now obtaining in the science of seismology. Shortly before leaving Japan his residence was destroyed by fire; all his books, instruments and 2000 vol umes of the 'Transactions of the Seismological Society of Japan' were lost,. Returning to

England in 1895 Milne and his wife settled in the Isle of Wight, where he erected the world renowned seismological observatory and equipped it with instruments that record shocks in any part of the globe. This annual analyses of the records thus obtained approximately de termined the positions of 57 earthquakes per year. The Milne seismograph is the standard instrument in use to-day. He compiled a 'Cata logue of Destructive Earthquakes, A.D. 7 to A.D. 1899' (1912) for the British Association, show ing 4,151 entries. His two volumes on 'Seis mology' and 'Earthquakes' are standard text books. Milne was the recipient of numerous decorations and honors from different coun tries.