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Milwaukee

miles, harbor, river, lake, north, rivers and feet

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MILWAUKEE, mil-wale, Wis., capital of Milwaukee County and the metropolis of the State; on the west shore of Lake Michigan, at the confluence of three rivers — Milwaukee, Menomonee and Kinnickinnic. The converg ing streams flow into a bay of great natural beauty, which extends nearly three miles inland and affords excellent harborage for vessels within the shelter of two miles of breakwater constructed by the Federal government.

distance of six miles sep arates the high north and south headlands that mark the extremes of the hay. The interven ing shore, except around the deltas formed by the disemboguing streams, is a series of bold bluffs that overlook the harbor from an alti tude varying from 85 to nearly 150 feet above Lake Michigan, thence sloping gradually to the lower levels of the rivers that enter the city from the north, south and west respectively. The river bottoms were, half a century ago, stretches of wild-rice marshes and tamarack swamps, but the leveling processes prompted by business necessities have transformed them into solid ground whereon the chief business section has been built. The residence districts are located on the higher altitudes above the three valleys formed by the streams that trisect the city.

Trade and Milwaukee's ex cellent harbor has been the leading factor in promoting the commercial and industrial growth of the city. Three navigable rivers, the Milwaukee, Menomonee and Kinnickinnic, which merge at a common mouth, afford, with connecting canals and slips, about 20 miles of water frontage. A large proportion of the frontage on the Milwaukee River, however, is occupied by mercantile structures which face thoroughfares paralleling the river. The Me nomonee River, which flows from the west and has a navigable length of about two miles, car ries the major portion of the tonnage of the port. The Kinnickinnic River, extending southerly about two and three-quarters miles, is next in this respect, while the Milwaukee River, reaching to the northward about two miles, ranks third. The rivers average from 140 to 225 feet in width and have a maximum depth of 20 feet.

Coal represents the greater portion of the receipts of the port, and grain and miscella neous freight of the shipments. In normal

times the total inbound and outbound tonnage aggregates between eight and nine million tons with a combined valuation of close to $150,000, 000. Governmental statistics rank Milwaukee as the second largest coal receiving port on the Great Lakes. The port holds first place in point of number of arrivals and departures, second place as to valuation of freight tonnage and third place in the matter of shipments of flour and grain and grain products.

In addition to the coal and grain trades, a large volume of general merchandise is trans ported by steamers which run to Georgian Bay and ports on Lake Erie. Two carferry lines maintain service throughout the entire year to and from ports on the east shore of Lake Mich igan, where direct connection is made with rail ways to the East. These ferries carry 30 rail way cars each and make daily trips. In addi tion to the carferry service, two steamboat companies operate passenger and freight steamers to across-the-lake points practically the year round. Passenger and freight steam ers also ply daily between Milwaukee and Chi cago and also make trips to points north, in cluding Green Bay ports.

A feature of Milwaukee harbor is an outer anchorage basin, or harbor of refuge, formed by a sea wall extending southeasterly from the north point of the bay. The protected area available for the use of vessels is about 270 acres with a depth ranging from 16 to 32 feet. Plans are now being prepared under the direc tion of the harbor commission for the devel opment for harbor purposes of the lake front from Wisconsin street on the north to Russell avenue on the south, a distance of about two miles, and also the inner side of a peninsula known as Jones Island, at an estimated cost of from five to six million dollars. The project contemplates municipally-owned terminals of every nature, and has for its purpose the ac commodation of the increased traffic of the future and the diversion of as much business as is possible from the present congested and closely bridged channels to the more accessible deep-water district above named.

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