MILYUKOV, Pavel Nikolaevitch, Rus sian historian, educator and political leader: b. near Saint Petersburg, 1857. Educated in Moscow he became a tutor in history at the university in 1886-95. Because of his liberal views regarding political reforms he was banished from Russia. He then went to Bul garia and became professor of history at the University of Sofia. In 1897-98 he traveled in Europe and then came to the United States. Settling in Chicago he lectured on Russian subjects at the University of Chicago. A course of lectures delivered there was pub lished in 1905 under the title of 'Russia and Its Crisis.' In 1905 Milyukov returned to Rus sia on the outbreak of the revolutionary move ment to further the cause of liberty. He was imprisoned for a while, but on his release re sumed his activities and was instrumental in forming the Union of Unions (composed of the educated and professional classes). He was elected to the first Duma as a Constitutional Democrat, which party (universal suffrage and constitutional government) he had cre ated. While the Duma was in session he was
arrested. After a month's imprisonment he was liberated. He was a member of the Bal kan Committee of Inquiry which investigated the conduct of the war of 1913. Milyukov edited the Constitutional Democrat papers, the Free Nation and Popular Rights, until they were suppressed by the Russian authorities. Then he became editor of the Petrograd news paper called Rech. Besides a vast number of essays and magazine articles Milyukov has pub lished many books. These include 'Main Cur rents of Russian Historical Thought' (1893 95) ; 'Sketches of the History of Russian Cul ture' (1895-96); 'Russia and its Crisis' (1895); 'Democracy and the Second Duma' (1905) ; 'A Year of Struggle' (1907); and 'The Balkan Crisis and (1910).