MINA, Francisco Espoz y, Spanish guer rillero leader and general: b. Ydozin, Navarra, Spain, 17 June 1781; d. Barcelona, 24 Dec. 1836. As he sprang from the yeomen class, he naturally espoused radical and democratic ideas at an early age. When Napoleon tried to seize Spain, in 1808, Mina enlisted in Doyle's regiment and then passed into a band of guer rilleros commanded by his nephew, Xavier Mina. When Xavier was captured by the French in 1810, seven men of the band decided to follow Mina; and soon afterward the Junta of Aragon gave him command of all the guer rilleros of Navarra. The national government of Cadiz gave him rank and in 1812 he was promoted commander-in-thief in Upper Aragon and on the left bank of the Ebro. Mina was an excellent organizer and strategist. His po sition made it possible for him to confiscate war supplies imported by the French and to levy duty upon all imported war materials. This provided him with money to pay his troops regularly; and he was, therefore, able to main tain an excellent morale among his men and to please the countryside by avoiding a levy of taxes and contributions. Mina served with distinction under the Duke of Wellington in the campaign of 1813-14 and was frequently wounded. When Ferdinand VII was restored, he fell from favor, made an unsuccessful at tempt to instigate an uprising among the Lib erals at Pampluna and went into exile. The Revolution of 1820 brought him back and he served the Liberal party throughout northern Spain, resisting the French attempts to bring back the king. He was forced by the French
to capitulate in November 1823, and the French allowed him to escape into England. In 1830 he made another attempt against Ferdinand; but notwithstanding this, on the death of Fer dinand he was recalled to Spain and the gov ernment of the regent, Cristina, gave him the command against the Carlists, in 1835, although fearing his Radicalism. By this time his health was broken and he resigned his command in April 1835. A year later he took command in Catalonia and aided in forcing the regent to grant a constitution to Spain (August 1836). Mina was a brave man. Mention is made of him in all the histories dealing with Spanish matters in the early days of the 19th century. He was a master in the practice of irregular mountain warfare and was not averse to high handed methods. His first act was to arrest and shoot a brigand who was pretending to be a patriotic guerrillero. He made large claims; for instance that in two years (1810-12) he had fought 143 actions, taken 13 fortified posts and captured 14,000 prisoners. He also said that' he immobilized 26,000 French troops which would otherwise have served with Marmont in the Salamanca campaign. In 1825 hepublished 'A Short Extract from the Life of General Consult his published by his widow (Madrid 1851-52).