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MINGHETTI, min-jet-te, Marco, Italian statesman and writer; b. 'Bologna, Italy, 8 Nov. 1818; d. Rome, 10 Dec. 1886. He came of a wealthy family and was given a university edu cation. After studying the political institutions of France, Great Britain and Germany, he re turned to Italy and published an essay on the commercial advantages of free trade as exist ing in England, espousing the economic views of Richard Cobden, which were similar to the teachings of the Tuscan economist, Bandini, already adopted by him. Minghetti began his public career in 1846 by establishing a liberal journal, /I Felsineo, in Bologna. In 1847 he was called to Rome by Pius IX to become a member of the Consulta delle Finanze and in 1848'he became Minister of Public Works. When the Pope yielded to Austria, Minghetti trans ferred his services to Sardinia, joining the army under Charles Albert in Lombardy. He was appointed on the royal staff with the rank of captain. After the battle of Goito, he was made major and distinguished himself in the engage ment of Custozza (25 July 1848). Invited to Rome by Count Rossi as a member of the new constitutional ministry, he arrived the day of Rossi's assassination. He refused the Pope's request to take Rossi's place and returned to the Piedmontese army. After the defeat at Novara (1849), Minghetti lived quietly in Milan for several years, devoting himself to political economy. In 1859 he became Cavour's

tary of State for Foreign Affairs. On Cavour's death in 1861 he was regarded as the ablest representative in the Italian Chamber. In 1863 he became Prime Minister and in 1864 he con cluded with Napoleon III the "September Con vention," which seemed to place an obstacle in the way of completing Italian unity. He left office in 1864. In 1868 he was Ambassador to London. For a short time, subsequently, he was at the head of the Agricultural and Com mercial Department of the Menabrea Ministry (1869). He was Ambassador to Vienna in 1870-73; and from 1873 to 1876 again head of the Cabinet, first as Minister of Finance and then as Minister of Foreign Affairs. His last years were spent in partial retirement and study. Minghetti's writings include 'Della economic publica e delle sue attinenze con la morale e col diritto' (1859); Chiesa e to Stato' (Milan 1878); 'Opuscola letterari ed economici' (1872); and pada mentari> (Rome 1888-90). Minghetti was also a student of the fine arts, lectured on Dante and Raphael and wrote a book, 'Le donne italiane nelle belle arte al secolo XV e (1877) and a biography of Raphael (1885). His autobiography, miei recordi,' appeared after his death (1888).