college, saint, schools, school, normal, training, cent, institutions, various and university

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There has been a great growth during the past few years. In 1912 the number of men teaching in the State was 1,720; in 1916 it was 1,952, an increase of 14 per cent despite a loss of 20 per cent in men teaching rural schools due to consolidation. The increase of men in graded and high schools in the four years was 46 per cent. Similarly wages increased from $54 for men and $45 for women in the rural schools, and $109 for men and $57 for women in the graded and high schools, to $113 for men and $64 for women in the rural schools and $145 for men and $78 for women in the graded and high schools. Of the teachers em ployed in 1916 in the rural districts 3,777 had had a high school training, 3,076 a high school and normal course, 682 a normal training and 191 college training. In the high and graded schools 2,132 were high school graduates; 172 had had high school normal training, 4,684 normal and 2,414 college training. In four years the number of normal graduates had in creased 18 per cent, the number of college graduates 40 per cent. In all there were em ployed during 1916 17,793 teachers. The total enrolment was 481,583. The schoolhouses numbered 9,400, valued at $47,459,317. There were 7,630 libraries containing 1,824,832 vol umes. In 1916 $21,821,468 was expended in the State for education.

Higher education is carried on in the five normal schools and in the University of Min nesota. These normals are located at Winona, Mankato, Saint Cloud, Moorhead and Duluth, the university at Minneapolis. The normals enrolled 4,208 pupils and in 1916 graduated 728 pupils, a gain of 147 over 1912. The university enrolled 13,279, of whom 5,725 were in the col leges of liberal arts, engineering and mechanic arts, mining, agriculture, law, medicine, den tistry, pharmacy and education; and in the schools of analytical and applied chemistry, school for nurses and graduate school. In the various agricultural courses and in the exten sion division there were 7,554 enrolled. Like the common schools the university has invested funds derived from the sale of lands amounting to $1,647,059. On 6 May 1915 the regents adopted a recommendation to establish at Rochester graduate research in co-operation with the Mayo Foundation. This provides a fund of $1,500,000, free use of laboratories and clinical facilities and pays all salaries of instructors.

Religion.— From the time that the Episco palians and Presbyterians organized services for the soldiers at Fort Snelling, that the Con gregationalists labored with the Indians at Lake Harriet, the Catholics built their chapel at Mendota and the Methodists preached to the first settlers along the Mississippi, missionary effort and church organization in Minnesota has been a great agent in the development of the commonwealth. The Catholics are the strongest numerically, with 480,535 communi cants. Saint Paul is the centre of their work. Here is the beautiful cathedral erected in 1913 at a cost of $3,000,000. Here are also the Hill Seminary, and Saint Thomas College with an enrolment of 800. Saint John's Col

lege is at Saint Cloud. It enrolls 365. This Church supports parochial schools, both grade and high, in the Twin Cities; and at other places orphan asylums, relief agencies and hos pitals, especially Saint Mary's at Rochester, connected with the Mayo Foundation. In all it controls 66 institutions. The Lutherans, Norwegian, Swedish, Danish and German are the second denomination in point of numbers. Altogether there are 300,000. They also sup port hospitals and colleges. At Saint Paul are Concordia College (German), Luther (Nor wegian) and Luther (German) seminaries; at Minneapolis, Augsburg Seminary and Min nesota College (Swedish) ; at Saint Peter, Gus tavus Adolphus College (Swedish), and at Northfield, Saint Olaf's College (Norwegian). Altogether the Lutheran colleges and seminaries enroll 5,000 students. They control 60 institu tions. The Episcopal cathedral is at Faribault, where are also Saint Mary's school for girls and Shattuck Military Academy for boys, and the Seahury Divinity School. The Episcopalians have 16,000 members and support 10 institutions. Enrolled in its higher institutions of learning are 800. The Presbyterians number 30,000. They support Macalcster College at Saint Paul, which enrolls 400 students. The Methodists are 50,000 in number. Hamline University at Saint Paul and Parker College at Winnebago City, with a total enrolment of 600, are their colleges. The Congregationalists number 25,000. Carleton College at Northfield and Windom College at Montevideo enroll 600. There are 25,000 Baptists and 35,000 of other faiths in the State.

Charities and Correction.-- Under the di rection of the State board of control are five asylums and hospitals for the insane, schools for the blind, deaf, feeble-minded, dependent children, delinquent boys and delinquent girls, reformatory, prison, sanitorium for consum ptives, hospital for crippled children and hos pital for inebriates — in all 16 institutions. To support them the State appropriated $3,864, 900 for the year 1917-18. The number of in sane is 5,839; of defectives, 3,585; of depend ents. 655; of delinquent children. 400; of adult prisoners, 1,300; of patients, 1,200. Probation officers reported 5,863 cases during the year 1914 and 1915 in which children have been helped. Tail inspectors reported that 11,822 cases had been disposed of during 1915; and there were in the various county poorhouses of the State 1,910. The total cost of the various county charities during the year of 1915 was $1,317,477. The income from various poor houses was $29,290 and the income from the work of the State prison twine and farm ma chinery factories was $556,591. Besides this there was received $125,000 worth of farm and garden produce used or sold by the various institutions. The twine is sold to Minnesota farmers at a slight reduction in price from out side factory products.

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