Upon the outbreak of the Rebellion, Ram sey, the second governor, had the honor of offering President Lincoln the first troops, and during the war 11 regiments of infantry, two regiments of artillery, two battalions of cavalry and a company of engineers were sent from Minnesota— 27,000 men in all. Part of these troops were also employed to put down an up rising of the Dakotas under Chief Little Crow. These Indians, resentful over the failure of the United States government to keep its engage ments with them, and excited by the prospect of seizing their land while the government was engaged in war, made a sudden attack in August 1862 upon the settlers of the upper Minnesota Valley, and not until 800 whites had been killed were the Dakotas subdued. In Sep tember, General Sibley succeeded in capturing the leaders, of whom 38 were executed at Mankato. The tribal life of the Dakotas in the State was broken up so that they never threat ened the peace of the State again.
At the close of the war Scandinavians came into the State in great numbers, as Germans had done in the early fifties, and began to open up the central and western parts of the State. Railroad building, delayed by the war, pro gressed rapidly. The introduction of rolls to take the place of buhr stones and the invention of the bolting process to purify middlings made Minneapolis a great flour centre, as the prox imity to immense tracts of white pine had made it a great lumber centre. Saint Paul became a railroad centre of importance and the whole sale and jobbing market of the Northwest.
These advantages and the rapid rise of values produced another period of speculation that culminated in the panic of 1893. The hard times that followed were severly felt in the Twin Cities and in Duluth; but, owing to the substantial development of the rural districts, there was little, if any, retardation in the growth of the State. Lands in the Red River Valley and in southwestern Minnesota produced increasingly, and were in demand. By 1898 the cities were recovering from the effects of the panic, and were beginning to grow con servatively and to improve sanely. For this reason as well as because the riches of the State have been gathered and distributed by most efficient methods the history of Minnesota since 1900 has been one of unbroken prosperity.
seat of government is at Saint Paul in a capitol building designed by Cass Gilbert and decorated by LaFarge and other artists, and costing $4,000,000. The dis tinctive features of Minnesota government are the School Land Law (see Education), the Railroad and Warehouse Commission, elected by the people, and designed to adjust rates and other details of transportation in the interests of the public; the administration of State in stitutions under a board of control appointed by the governor; the Non-partisan Election Law, making all candidates for office within the State, except those running for State executive offices. appeal to the electors on their ability to perform the work required by the office, instead of making the work a political issue, and the Primary Election Law, which takes the place of the conven tion system of naming candidates. The State
has adopted effective measures for road-build ing, preservation of resources, including Game, Fish and Forest, a Workmen's Compensation Act and a Minimum Wage Law that prohibits the employment of women for less than $8.75 per week. The legislature meets for the first 90 days in each odd-numbered year. Terms for the lower house are two years; for the senate, four. A voter must have lived in the State a year, in his precinct 30 days and be a citizen of the United States. The governor, lieutenant-governor, secretary of state, auditor and treasurer are each elected on a partisan ticket for a term of two years. There are 10 Congressional districts.
In politics the State has been regarded as solidly Republican, and in Presidential elections can be counted on for good Republican ma jorities. There has been, however, a decided tendency toward independence in politics within the last two decades, especially in the choice for governor. Below is the list of governors since the territory was organized in 1849: The population of the State by decades is given herewith: 1850, 6,077; 1860, 172,023; 1870, 439,706; 1880, 780,773; 1890, 1,301,826; 1900, 1,751,394; 1910, 2,075,708; 1917 (estimated), 2,500,000. Of this population 11,000 are Indians, mostly Chippewas on White Earth Reservation; 9,000 are negroes; the rest are whites. Of the white population 74 per cent are native-born, 26 per cent are foreign. Of the foreign-born 250,000 are Scandinavians, 200,000 Germans, 40,000 Canadians, 35,000 Brit ish, 18,000 Russians, 42,000 Austrians, 27,000 Finns, 3,000 Italians and 15,000 from other countries.
Bond, 'Minnesota and Its Resources (New York 1854); Johnson, C., 'Highways and Byways of the Mississippi Val ley' (New York 1906); Neill, 'The History of Minnesota' (Saint Paul 1882); Folwell, W. W., 'Minnesota' (in 'American Commonwealth Series,' Boston 1907) ; 'Minnesota in Three Centuries': Parsons, 'The Story of Minne sota' (1916) ; Pollock, 'Our Minnesota> (1916); Minnesota Historical Society Collections (Saint Paul, 15 vols.) ; Minnesota History Bulletin (1916-17-18) ; Flandrau. 'History of Minne sota' (Saint Paul 1900); Gilfillan, 'Early Political History of Minnesota' (ib. 1901); McVey, F. L., 'The Government of Minnesota> New York 1905) ; O'Brien, 'Minnesota Pioneer Sketches> (Minneapolis 1905); Robin son, E. V. 'The Cost of Government in Minne sota' (Saint Paul 1913); id., 'Early Economic Conditions in Minnesota' (ib. 1915); Carney, 'The Story of Minnesota' (1919) ; Emery, 'The Story of Minnesota, 1916' (Saint Paul 1916); Skinner, 'The Story of Minnesota' (Chicago 1914) ; Virtue, 'Government of Min nesota' (New York 1912) ; United States Geo logical Survey, Reports of; reports of State departments and of the United States Census Bureau Crop Survey.